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public:nnels:etext:language [2019/06/04 17:31]
rachel.osolen [Q&A]
public:nnels:etext:language [2021/05/29 15:42] (current)
rachel.osolen [Marking up Languages]
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-=====Text in other languages=====+======Text in other languages======
  
 Whenever there is text in another language it’s very important to properly identify the language of the text. This ensures that screen readers, braille displays, and other assistive technologies can render the content accurately and read the content according to the pronunciation rules for that language. When no other language has been specified for a phrase or passage of text, its human language is the default human language of the book. Whenever there is text in another language it’s very important to properly identify the language of the text. This ensures that screen readers, braille displays, and other assistive technologies can render the content accurately and read the content according to the pronunciation rules for that language. When no other language has been specified for a phrase or passage of text, its human language is the default human language of the book.
  
-In some cases, though, it's not desirable to markup the change in language as it actually negatively affects accessibility. Do **not** mark up the language in these cases:+<​note>​In some cases, though, it's not desirable to markup the change in language as it actually negatively affects accessibility. 
 + 
 +When there are frequent switches in languages in a book, the text-to-speech voice will also change, and this can be a bit jolting if it occurs frequently and depending on how different the voices are. For example, the reader might have “Apple Alex” set as the default English voice and “Apple Amelie” for the French voice. So, if it’s not necessary to mark up the language, then it’s often best to leave it. Just something to keep in the back of one’s mind. </​note>​ 
 + 
 +Do __**not**__ mark up the language in these cases:
  
   - **Proper names**   - **Proper names**
     - Examples: Bellevue, Pierre     - Examples: Bellevue, Pierre
-  - **Technical terms**+  - **Technical ​and Scientific ​terms**
     - Examples: Homo sapiens, Alpha Centauri, hertz, and habeas corpus     - Examples: Homo sapiens, Alpha Centauri, hertz, and habeas corpus
     - Most professions require frequent use of technical terms which may originate from a foreign language. Such terms are usually not translated to all languages. The universal nature of technical terms also facilitate communication between professionals.     - Most professions require frequent use of technical terms which may originate from a foreign language. Such terms are usually not translated to all languages. The universal nature of technical terms also facilitate communication between professionals.
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   - **Words of indeterminate language**   - **Words of indeterminate language**
     - In the rare case where, for one reason or another, we cannot determine what the appropriate language information is, then we just leave it as is (do not mark it up).  This might be a situation where we're not sure if the text is non-linguistic. We haven'​t come across this situation in an ebook yet!     - In the rare case where, for one reason or another, we cannot determine what the appropriate language information is, then we just leave it as is (do not mark it up).  This might be a situation where we're not sure if the text is non-linguistic. We haven'​t come across this situation in an ebook yet!
-=====Applying language styles===== 
  
-The language can be set using styles at either the **paragraph** or **character** levels. For entire paragraphs in a foreign language, we use a Paragraph style; for inline words or phrases in another language, we use a character style. 
  
-For example, in the image below, we can create a new Character style (let's call the style Turkish) and set the language ​to Turkish using the Format drop-down menu and selecting Language+For more info please refer to the WCAG page on languages through this [[https://​www.w3.org/​WAI/​WCAG21/​Understanding/​language-of-parts.html|link]].
  
-Following these steps will ensure that the text is spoken in the correct language, and converted into XML. 
  
-====Step 1: Create a new style (character ​or paragraph)====+<note tip>The important thing to keep in mind is why the guidelines exist. This guideline is for non-visual readers who use audio (text-to-speech) to access the text. I sometimes find it helpful to ask, “would this negatively affect reading comprehension if it were voiced in English ​or in French?”. You can easily test this out by activating the TTS on your Windows (Narrator) or Mac (VoiceOver)</​note>​
  
-{{:public:​nnels:​turkish.png?​direct400|Create a style}}+Links for Windows Narrator:
  
-====Step 2Go to ''​Language''​ in the drop-down menu====+  * Video for Window Version 10: [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=U25vhhE50kI]] 
 +  * Written instructions for Windows[[https://​support.microsoft.com/​en-ca/​help/​22798/​windows-10-complete-guide-to-narrator]]
  
-{{:​public:​nnels:​language_menu.png?​direct&​400|Go to Language in the drop-down}} 
  
-====Step 3Set the language of the text====+Links for Mac VoiceOver:​ 
 +  * Video for Mac: [[https://​www.apple.com/​voiceover/​info/​guide/​_1124.html]] 
 +  * Video for Mac with Siri: [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=HzMtcVS5c4E]] 
 +  * Written Instructions for Mac[[https://​www.apple.com/​voiceover/​info/​guide/​_1124.html]]
  
-{{:​public:​nnels:​language_select.png?​direct&​200|Select the language}}+=====Marking up Languages=====
  
 +To mark up secondary language:
 +  * Select the text
 +  * Go to ''​Tools > Language''​
 +  * This will open a pop up menu
 +  * Select the appropriate language
 +  * Apply ''​Strong''​ style to the word or phrase
 +
 +When passing the ticket to the Production Coordinator,​ please make note of what languages you used.
 +
 +<​note>​The extra steps of applying ''​Strong''​ style and including a list of languages used in RT will help identify if they have been applied properly. The ''​Strong''​ style is removed for conversion by the Production Coordinator.
 +</​note>​
 +
 +If you are working with a Windows computer, you may have to install the editing languages in order to apply them to the text. The following link will take you to a website that breaks down how to do this: [[https://​www.customguide.com/​word/​how-to-change-language-on-word
 +]]
 =====For entire documents written in another language===== =====For entire documents written in another language=====
  
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 To change the document language on a Mac, you can follow these steps: ​ To change the document language on a Mac, you can follow these steps: ​
-[[https://​support.office.com/en-us/article/Check-spelling-and-grammar-in-a-different-language-in-Office-2016-for-Mac-0554be72-cd0e-49bd-a112-70ae2f0bf093|Change document language on a Mac]]+[[https://​support.microsoft.com/en-us/topic/change-the-language-office-uses-in-its-menus-and-proofing-tools-f5c54ff9-a6fa-4348-a43c-760e7ef148f8#:​~:​text=Within%20any%20Office%20application%2C%20select,​then%20select%20Set%20as%20Preferred.]]
  
 On a PC, Word should automatically detect the language of the document: ​ On a PC, Word should automatically detect the language of the document: ​
-[[https://​support.office.com/en-us/article/Check-spelling-and-grammar-in-a-different-language-667ba67a-a202-42fd-8596-edc1fa320e00|Change document ​language ​on PC]]+[[https://​support.microsoft.com/en-us/topic/change-the-language-office-uses-in-its-menus-and-proofing-tools-f5c54ff9-a6fa-4348-a43c-760e7ef148f8#​ID0EBBF=Windows]] 
 + 
 +=====Indigenous Languages===== 
 + 
 +Currently, we are not able to apply language mark up to Indigenous Languages in Microsoft Word.  
 + 
 +There are span tags that have been created by the [[https://​www.iana.org/​assignments/​language-subtag-registry/​language-subtag-registry|IANA]] for a few Indigenous Languages. These span tags can be added later in the conversion process directly into the XML files for EPUB3 and DAISY text. Unfortunately,​ screen readers do not recognize these tags at the time of reading this. Despite this, we do want to add these tags in so when the technology catches up the language ​tags are there. 
 + 
 +<​note>​You may notice that there are other languages in the IANA span library that Word does not currently support. We unfortunately do not have the bandwidth at this time to accommodate all languages that are missing. In accordance with the TRC we do want to do our best to recognize all Indigenous Languages and work towards more inclusion of these languages in our work.</​note>​ 
 + 
 +This section will explain how to set up the Indigenous Languages in Word to help the Production Coordinator add the span tags during conversion. 
 + 
 +<​note>​Not all Indigenous Languages have span tags, and it is very important you are as specific as possible with identifying the language used in the book in the Producer'​s Note to help the Production Coordinator identify what tag to use.</​note>​ 
 + 
 +There are two steps for marking Indigenous Languages:​ 
 +  - Apply Strong style to the words and phrases. 
 +  - Insert ​Producer'​s Note at the beginning of the text to inform the reader what Indigenous Languages are in the book, and that Text-To-Speech is unable to pronounce these words. 
 +  - Leave a comment in the RT ticket indicating what Indigenous Languages are in the book. 
 + 
 +<​note>​It is important you try to include the proper names of the Indigenous Languages in the Producer'​s Note. Where you can, also include the Tribe name. Sometimes this is clear in the book, and other times you may need to do a bit of research. If you have any questions please contact the Project Coordinator.  
 +</​note>​ 
 + 
 +<WRAP center round box 80%> 
 + 
 +**Example of Indigenous Language Producer'​s Note** 
 + 
 +Producer’s Note (heading 1) 
 + 
 +This book uses words and phrases written in [insert language name]. Text-to-speech software will not be able to pronounce the Indigenous-language words correctly in this Word version. (normal style) 
 + 
 +</​WRAP>​
  
-=====A note about poetry===== 
-When you are working on poetry, you will **not** be able to apply a particular language style to words and phrases. In this case, you can just leave the Word version without language markup and use just the Poetry (''​Poem (DAISY)''​) style. Just make a note in the RT ticket that there are multiple languages. 
  
 =====Working with Images of Words and Different Alphabets===== =====Working with Images of Words and Different Alphabets=====
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 Sometimes the terms or phrases are typed out in line with the rest of the text, but with a language that uses a different alphabet. In this case, if the text appears as typed text, and not an image, then you can simply apply a language style to it as usual. ​ Sometimes the terms or phrases are typed out in line with the rest of the text, but with a language that uses a different alphabet. In this case, if the text appears as typed text, and not an image, then you can simply apply a language style to it as usual. ​
- 
  
 In case you're not sure how to type in different languages, this is how you do it on a Mac [[https://​support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​Enable-keyboard-layouts-in-different-languages-in-Office-for-Mac-687f804e-4421-4a73-94b3-3febb538a7a1|Enable keyboard layouts in different languages in Office for Mac]] and [[https://​support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​Enable-or-change-a-keyboard-layout-language-1c2242c0-fe15-4bc3-99bc-535de6f4f258|Windows]]. In case you're not sure how to type in different languages, this is how you do it on a Mac [[https://​support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​Enable-keyboard-layouts-in-different-languages-in-Office-for-Mac-687f804e-4421-4a73-94b3-3febb538a7a1|Enable keyboard layouts in different languages in Office for Mac]] and [[https://​support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​Enable-or-change-a-keyboard-layout-language-1c2242c0-fe15-4bc3-99bc-535de6f4f258|Windows]].
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 In other cases you can use ''​unicode''​ to enter the characters of the language. For more information on unicode go to the [[public:​nnels:​etext:​symbols|Symbols]] page. In other cases you can use ''​unicode''​ to enter the characters of the language. For more information on unicode go to the [[public:​nnels:​etext:​symbols|Symbols]] page.
  
 +=====Q&​A Archive=====
  
 +Q: I'm working on the play "1 Hour Photo."​ It contains a few Japanese characters but in the conversion, the characters were changed to Roman alphabet letters instead. The English translation is given for the symbols so I'm wondering if I should just erase the Roman alphabet letters. Or would it be better to insert the proper ideogram back in? If so, how do I do that? 
  
-=====Q&​A=====+[Here is an example: Tetsuro raises both hands to illustrate the ideogram for "​mountain,"​ Ill.] 
  
-**Q: have a book that uses Innuinaktun words, but it also has two images. One is an image of a table with the word symbols beside ​the sound (no english translation), ​and the other is a full pieces of text in Innuinaktun How should I address these images in the Alt-Text? And should I also include a producers note about the Innuinaktun words?**+Another option ​thought of was to copy the image of the ideogram from the PDF file and paste it into the Word file. Then, add alt-text to itWhat do you think?
  
-{{ :​public:​nnels:​etext:​innut_table.png?​400 ​|}}+AYou should insert the proper ideogram back in.  You can do this using unicode. Here are [[public:​nnels:​etext:​symbols#​using_unicode_for_symbols|the instructions on how to set that up]]--but remember, some [[public:​nnels:​etext:​language#​working_with_images_of_words_and_different_alphabets|languages are too complex for this technique]]. ​ If you feel confident you can insert the correct ideogram, the do so.  Remember, we **never** have text as images, even if it is in another alphabet.  
 +---- 
 +Q: That's the thing, I don't know how to find the correct Japanese ideogram in Unicode. I don't even know which Japanese alphabet to search in - apparently there are several. I don't feel at all confident that I can identify the correct symbol. I know how to insert symbols with Unicode - the missing part is how to identify the specific code for the correct Japanese symbol. I think it would be one of the CJK Unified Ideographs but I don't know which one and I can't just search "​mountain"​ to find the correct one. The instructions you point to on the wiki don't explain that part. To me, this falls under "Some languages cannot be transcribed due to the complexity of that language"​ which is why I was wondering if I should find a work-around to still include the symbols for people who do understand Japanese. Or, just leaving the symbols out since the English translation as well as the English pronunciation of the Japanese word are both included.
  
-{{ :public:​nnels:​etext:​innut_image_01.png?400 |}}+AIn this case, since it is an issue of conversion and you are not confident in finding to correct ideogram, then simply put a producer'​s not at the beginning of the book explaining that the original Japanese ideograms did not convert to this version of the text, but the translation and punctuation are present--or something better written than that to explain the issue. 
 +----
  
-A: Looks like this is the Inuktitut language, according to the publication information. Inuktitut can be represented by [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Unified_Canadian_Aboriginal_Syllabics_(Unicode_block)|Unicode Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics]]. 
-We will need to translate the images into Unicode. 
-If you're using Mac, enable your "​Unicode Hex Input" keyboard (see Language section in wiki for instructions). To type each symbol/​letter into Word, hold down the ''​alt''​ key and type the 4-digit number, i.e. ''​1400''​. ​ 
  
-**Q: I am editing ​a poetry ​book that uses Italian, French, and Latin. ​ If apply a language ​to one wordit changes the entire line or stanza ​Should ​just leave it as poetry ​style?**+Q: I am editing ​an illustrated children'​s ​book that has a sentence where think I need to indicate ​foreign ​language. It is just a single ​word but it is clear that a change in language is intended (Page 3 of The Gathering by Theresa Meuse). I tried to follow the instructions for creating a new style but the Mi'​kmaw language is not one of the language options. What should I do?
  
-A: Unfortunately, ​identifying languages in Word doesn'​t translate well to DAISY XML and requires manual editing of language tags in the XMLYou can just leave the Word version without ​language ​markup ​and use just the poetry style. Just make a note in the RT ticket that there are multiple languages.+A: Unfortunately, ​there are currently no language tags for that language What you can do is put a Producer'​s Note in the book with something like "This book includes words and phrases in Mi'​kmaw ​language. Text-to-speech software will not be able to pronounce these words and phrases correctly.
 +----
  
-**Q: I have a book that deals with hebrew words. ​ Some of the words are typed, and I can create a style for them, but the other words are images of just a letter, or an entire word.  How should I deal with them?  Should I just put in the alt-text this is an image of this hebrew letter/​word?​ Or should I put in a producers note?  I included examples below:** 
-  
-{{:​public:​nnels:​etext:​screen_shot_2017-10-23_at_12.24.58_pm.png?​nolink&​200|}} 
  
-{{:public:​nnels:​etext:​screen_shot_2017-10-23_at_12.27.41_pm.png?nolink&​200|}}+**QI have a book that uses Innuinaktun words, but it also has two imagesOne is an image of a table with the word symbols beside the sound (no english translation),​ and the other is a full pieces of text in Innuinaktun How should I address these images in the Alt-Text? And should I also include a producers note about the Innuinaktun words?**
  
-{{:​public:​nnels:​etext:​screen_shot_2017-10-23_at_12.28.38_pm.png?nolink&​200|}}+{{ :​public:​nnels:​etext:​innut_table.png?400 |}}
  
-AUsing images instead of text is a very bad publishing practice ​:( Images of text should all be converted to text in the body of the narrative. We should type out all the text including the Hebrew and Greek text and use a style to tag them as words in the Hebrew or Greek language (as we usually do with foreign language words). +{{ :public:nnels:etext:innut_image_01.png?​400 ​|}}
- +
-In case you're not sure how to type in different languages, this is how you do it on a Mac [[https://​support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​Enable-keyboard-layouts-in-different-languages-in-Office-for-Mac-687f804e-4421-4a73-94b3-3febb538a7a1|Enable keyboard layouts in different languages in Office for Mac]] and [[https://support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​Enable-or-change-a-keyboard-layout-language-1c2242c0-fe15-4bc3-99bc-535de6f4f258|Windows]].+
  
 +A: Looks like this is the Inuktitut language, according to the publication information. Inuktitut can be represented by [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Unified_Canadian_Aboriginal_Syllabics_(Unicode_block)|Unicode Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics]].
 +We will need to translate the images into Unicode.
 +If you're using Mac, enable your "​Unicode Hex Input" keyboard (see Language section in wiki for instructions). To type each symbol/​letter into Word, hold down the ''​alt''​ key and type the 4-digit number, i.e. ''​1400''​. ​
  
 ---- ----
 WCAG 2.0 - H58:​[[https://​www.w3.org/​TR/​WCAG20-TECHS/​H58.html|Using language attributes to identify changes in the human language]] WCAG 2.0 - H58:​[[https://​www.w3.org/​TR/​WCAG20-TECHS/​H58.html|Using language attributes to identify changes in the human language]]
public/nnels/etext/language.1559694700.txt.gz · Last modified: 2019/06/04 17:31 by rachel.osolen