Post here your questions (at the top of the page) and we shall invent answers! :)
Thank you for all your outstanding questions so far, and please keep posting them here.
Q: A Thousand Times also has an image by itself after the title page and before the publication information. It's not decorative as it's referenced later in the text. What should I use as a heading?
A: No heading needed, just describe the image.
Q: Another A Thousand Times You Lose Your Treasure question: I know that we don't mark up words that have been incorporated into English, but I've noticed in this text that the author does not use the anglicized "pho," but instead writes it as "phở." Should I still leave this alone?
A: You can treat it the same way as the other Vietnamese words as below.
Q: I'm working on A Thousand Times You Lose Your Treasure, which works in words in Vietnamese, and I noticed that Vietnamese isn't one of the default language packs. I found the guide in the Wiki for adding languages in Windows – is there a similar go-to tutorial for Mac users?
A: It seems like you can not add Vietnamese to Word on Mac. I submitted a new question to the community message board, and will let you know if I hear anything. For now, just bold all the words, add a note to RT when you pass it to me that there are Vietnamese words in the document, and I will manually put in the span tags when I convert it to EPUB3.
Q: I'm working on "Looking for Aitkow" and there are some funky endnotes - some chapters (4, epilogue) have superscript numbers in the chapters, but are missing notes in the endnotes list. Other chapters (2, 7, 17) have endnotes in the list, but no superscript numbers in the chapters. In all, there are 7 end notes that are problematic. I've scoured the text and used the search function and cannot find them. Further evidence that they're missing - in the epub the notes are hyperlinked, but the funky notes are not hyperlinked. Let me know how to proceed!
A: Good question! Unfortunately, if there is not note to link it to there is little we can do. We could remove it from the book, or we could add links to the end of the chapter, but then it would not be linked to where it should be. We will have to remove it in this case.
Q: In the play "Crippled," there are no individual scenes or acts, nor is there currently a header/title marking where the play itself begins. Assuming I should make my own header for navigation purposes, should I just use the title of the play? And should I make note of this in the "About this Digital Book" section?
A: You can enter the heading
Play in Heading level 1 before the play. It the
About this digital book section you can simply state:
Level 1 indicates top level, section headings.
Q: In How to Lose Everything there is the line "Maybe I am dying". The original is in italics because it is a thought of the author in the moment, italicized to differentiate the thought from the rest of the text, but the "am" is in regular font to create emphasis within the thought sentence. Would it be best to just apply emphasis style to the italicized parts "Maybe I" and "dying" and leave "am" as normal/no style to indicate the emphasis within emphasis, or should I just apply emphasis style to the entire phrase?
A: Style it they way it is in the original.
Q: In a couple of the short stories in the collection "Before the Usual Time" capitalization is used for emphasis (ex. "What if I could GUARANTEE you'll see your work last until the seventh generation?"). The wiki says we keep emphasis and capitalization for stylistic choices and when it adds meaning, which I would say this is. However in this case would it be better to keep it in all capitals as in the original, or would it be better to use strong or emphasis style as readers might read capitals out letter by letter?
A: In this case you can replace it with emphasis, but in future cases if you are unsure then ask.
Q: Also in "Before the Usual Time" a festival called "ImagiNATIVE" is mentioned. Would I keep the capitalization as is in this case?
A: Yes, you can keep it in this case.
Q: In the wiki generally a title page immediately follows the cover page, and extra title pages are deleted. "Before the Usual Time" has two title pages, one immediately following the cover that has only the title, and one that has title, editor, and publisher info and comes after the publisher information. The wiki says the title page should generally have title, author, and publisher info, so it would seem better to keep the second title page. Should I move it to immediately follow the cover page, or keep the order of cover-about this digital book-producer note-title page?
A: Title pages always come after the Cover, otherwise it could confuse the reader as the front matter order is most always Cover-Title Page. Remember, the order of the Book Sections in the wiki are the order of the sections in a book. The only thing that can change usually is the publishing info sometimes appears at the end of a book (and we keep it there when it does)
Q: Two poetry formatting related questions for "Environment" in the collection "Before the Usual Time":
1. There are some words written in sub-script. Is there a way to retain this formatting or to retain the meaning? Or should I just format normally and put in the producer note that the formatting was not retained?
2. There appears to be some stylistic choices made in regards to paragraph breaks (ex. "upon the bastions of your fragile consciousness (para break) each lie another piece (para break)), which leads me to believe that I should keep all the paragraph breaks as they appear in the .pdf version. However the hyphen in "de-vours" also indicates that some lines do wrap, and should not have the paragraph breaks. Should I use my judgement to put in paragraph breaks (ex. should there be a paragraph break between "weight" and "of" on the first/second line, or is that one line wrapping?), or should I keep it exactly how it appears in the .pdf?
A: (1) Add note to Producers Note. (2) We are not editors, so only do it exactly as it appears in the .pdf. We do not want to break copy right law.
Q: The story "Goodmind" in "Before the Usual Time" uses lots of italics. In some cases it is implied that it is the main character's thoughts, though it is not explicitly stated. Would I still apply the emphasis style? The story also uses italics to denote messages that the main character receives through an online chat platform. Would that run along the same lines as thoughts (in which case we would keep the emphasis style) or should I change those to normal formatting?
A: Thoughts retain emphasis, remove from chat messages. When you read the text all the messages seem to begin with referring to the message directly followed by a colon. This means that the reader can understand that the following text is a chat message without the emphasis, and that it is only used to add visual meaning and is therefore not required.
I'm assuming I would not keep all the extra line breaks and would change to regular sentence case, but is there any other formatting I should apply here? The preceding sentence has "came to life with the message:" so should I tag the email transcription as a block quote?
A: In this context, applying the quote style will help add meaning to the text for better accessibility. I would also change the Subject to Pascal Case. There is a note and example about Pascal Case on the Capitalization page
Q:When marking Indigenous languages in "Policing Indigenous Movements," do I mark names of clans, nations, etc or do they qualify as proper names? For example, "Wet'suwet'en" or "Kino-nda-niimi [Collective]?"
A: Yes, please apply Bold style to all Indigenous works including proper names. This is the only time you would do this for languages.
Q: Two part question about the bibliography/reference list for the book There's Something in the Water:
1. For bibliographies, should entries only be nested if they have both the exact same author and date, or should all subsequent entries under the same author (not necessarily same date) be nested under the first author entry, with same-date entries then further nested?
2. In the original when there are subsequent citations with the same author, the first citation has the name information written out, while further entries have the name replaced with an underline/underscores. I'm not sure how this would come out in the readers, so should I keep the underscores or replace the underscores with the written names?
A: Great questions! 1) You can nest the same author, but not need to nest the same date. 2) you can keep it as is.
Q: In the book Theres Something in The Water there is a section in the first chapter where a section of legislation is quoted (under the "The Environmental Racism Prevention Act" subsection of Chapter 1). Would it be best to format that as an ordered list? Or should it just be blocked off as a quote?
A: That can be formatted as a blockquote.
Q: For block quotes and epigraphs that have an author listed it says to tag the author in the 'citation' style, but for in text citations we wouldn't have to go through and tag each in text citation in the 'citation' style, right? The bracketed author/date in text citations would just stay as normal text?
A: Great question. You are correct, we do not mark up in-text citations. I created a page on the wiki about this titled In-Text Citations and References for more information.
Q: I'm working on Redlocks and the Three Bears. I've formatted all of the pages according to the wiki. However, on one spread, one sentence is spread across two pages. I know we don't normally spread a sentence across two lines, and this seems particularly problematic because there is a heading and an image description between the two parts. Should I leave as is, or should I have the entire sentence on one of the pages?
A: Definitely not ideal, but we can only work with what we have. Leave the sentence split as it is what is done in the original.
Q: 4-Hour Workweek. 1 question.
How would you recommend I style this “versus” paragraph formatting in Chapter 7?
A: Style as normal on their own line.
Q: 4-Hour Workweek. 1 question.
Chapter 5: Q&A
We discussed making each question a heading. Is it okay that question two has no content? This would mean back-to-back heading 4s, which is a typically a no-no, but is this an exception given the limitations in styling this content? (ie, some of the questions have multiple paragraphs of text and lists beneath them)
A: Treat this the same way you would a form and enter [Blank] styled Normal
Q: 4-Hour Workweek. 3 questions.
1. There are large spaces throughout the book that the designer used to signify content shifts. They are always followed by the first few words of the following paragraph styled as All-Caps. I would like to add horizontal rules here because I think it would help clarify the content shift. I'll attach several examples that are marked up with the location of the break. Lemme know what you think.
2. Related: Chapter 7 opens with two times that look like they could be headings, but then there’s a large paragraph space and the subsequent text does not seem like it belongs under a heading called “3:45 p.m.” Does it make more sense to just leave the times as normal text on their own line? Should there be a line break between the second time paragraph and the content below it (per the previous question)?
3. Related: Chapter 7 continues to be a demon, and it has two numbered sections that are themselves separated by a large space and nothing more; the numbers look like they should be headings given the complexity of the content beneath them, but what ends up happening is that in the navigation we have this structure: Chapter 7 –> Time Wasters: Become an Ignoramus
Q: L'animal langage. Some of the end notes reference one another, which is an issue because in the original the end notes follow every chapter and restart the count each chapter, but in my formatted version, the end notes are continuous across all chapters. Thus, an end note might read "Voir note 28" but actually be referring to note 155 in the newly formatted document. What should I do?
A: That is tricky for sure! Right now we can only create endnotes at the end of the book, so the best thing to do is update the reference to the new note number.
Q: I'm still working on L'animal langage, but again this question/comment relates to all French books.
As discussed in our PA meeting, I've noticed that there are cases where a space appears before a piece of punctuation. And by space, I mean SPACE. As in, there are no print characters defining this space. I'm removing them as I see them, but I think they're literally impossible to find using Find/Replace.
What I'm wondering is if these even format when you convert the word doc to ePub. If there's no printing space, does that mean there's no tag on the ePub XHTML view? And if there's no tag, does that mean this quirk of MS Word doesn't end up causing the accessibility issues we're worried about (ie—does the space disappear during conversion)?
As noted, I'm deleting these as I find them, but they're very very easy to miss so I'm wondering how concerned we need to be. In the attached screenshot you can see there's a totally blank space between "moderne" and the semi-colon.
A: Good question. White spaces do not create tags, but create pauses. These should not cause accessibility issues. Has this come up in all the French books? Or just the one you are working on now? One thing you can do is turn on your computers TTS and have it read that section of text, keep in mind TTS is not as advanced as screen readers. These spaces look more like a Word glitch than anything else, but please send me a document with a sample and I can test it on my end. You can email it to me.
Q: I'm working on People, State, and War Under the French Regime in Canada and in the appendices at the end are several images of tables that I'm transcribing into text. I have two questions about these tables (I put the question here instead of the image Q&A because I felt like it was more applicable to tables). Some of the tables have arrows connecting the data in different cells, and a Note at the end of appendix A reads "Figures given with arrows indicate the combined total for the categories in question." I'm not sure how to indicate this in a table.
Second question, in Appendix A, in the second last table the edge of the last column is cut off, so I cant read all the text. I can infer what the words are intended to be? Or I can leave as is which will mean some partial words and individual letters. How should I proceed?
A: It seems like the Arrows are in the
Regular column. You can enter them using unicode. https://unicode-table.com/en/sets/arrow-symbols/IHere are all the codes for arrows.
If you can with confidence fill in those missing letters and words, then go for it!
Q: Back again with more French language book questions! I'm working on L'animal langage but this is a question for all French books. I've been removing the non-breaking space characters (^s) from these files because that's what we normally do. But I noticed when I added a colon to connect title and subtitle that MS Word automatically added a NBSP before the colon (see screenshot). I just want to make sure we're supposed to remove extra spaces in French files like we do in the English ones. The text-to-speech readers don't behave differently so these characters are still bad for accessibility…right?
A: Yes, we remove all extra spaces in French. Accessibility standards are global, and any erroneous spacing will cause accessibility issues.
Q: I have three questions about Et si un soir, a French play. The first is that there is no colon or m-dash to separate speaker from text/direction. Instead, the book is formatted with the speaker on a different line than the text (ie, the separator is a paragraph tag). Is it okay to leave it like this (will the STRONG style applied to the speaker name be enough to guide the reader)?
Second, there are monologue chunks with double paragraphs between them. Should I remove the extra paragraph tags (ie, have all the monologue chunks chunked together) or should I add a line separator? Thanks!
Lastly, "un temps" is a stage direction styled in italics and meant to indicate a pause. As established, we're supposed to format stage directions as plain text. However, in this case, I'm wondering if that will create confusion for the reader because each line is so short. Thoughts?
A: For the character names. Style them in bold followed by a colon. Always remove extra paragraph tags. They cause accessibility issues. As this book has dialogue written like poetry, it is okay to keep the emphasis style. Reformat the stage directions that are on multiple lines to be separated by periods. For example, the first stage direction would become: Joseph.Devant son écran d’ordinateur. À l’autre bout de la connexion se trouve une femme. Elle porte un masque d’oiseau hideux.
Q: I'm working on Mina Parmi Les Ombres, a French book. The book mentions a century using roman numerals and a superscript "e" (which I'm presuming would be like "th" in English). I'm not sure how I should format this so the screen reader reads it properly. I don't see anything in the advanced symbols/special characters window. Do I need to install a French keyboard option?
A: Superscripts are not part of the symbols. You can use the direct formatting buttons on the home ribbon, and there are some short keys. Here is a link to more instructions. I have made a not to add this to wiki.
Q: Pilleurs de rêves has an image of the back cover with a book summary and a blurb about the author. I've transcribed both and put the latter under "À propos de l'auteur" but what is the French translation that we should use for "Book Summary"?
A: Résumé du livre
Q: I'm working on Pilleurs de rêves, a French language book. It has a couple repeated references to Indigenous languages. One is the name of the people: anishinaabeg. Another is a single word said multiple times: nishin. I'll keep my eye out for more. In the meantime, I'm happy to add the strong style to these words, but I'm wondering if it would be possible to get a French translation of the producer's note for Indigenous languages on the Languages Wiki page.
A: Yes, you need to always bold all Indigenous words. I will get that translation and let you know when the wiki has been updated.
Q: The two French books I've worked on (Le Drap Blanc and Pilleurs de Reve) both have publisher address information after the cover page and before the title page. In Pilleurs de Reve, the copyright page comes after the title page. What should we do with the address information?
A: You can move it to below the Title and Author on the Title Page.
Q: Le Drap Blanc has a Remerciements section followed by a Dédicace. After the Dédicace is an Acknowledgement section for government support. A PA previously asked what to do with this final section here in the Q&A (for Pendent que Perceval Tombait). The answer was that this should be labeled: Remerciements. But Le Drap Blanc already has a section with this title. Should I have two sections with the same name? Should I move the Dédicace to the end (which would probably constitute "editing" so I'm thinking no). Other option?
A: In this case we can move it, as it is not part of the Dedication. It is not something we want to get into the habit of, but we have to work with what we have.
Q: Le Drap Blanc. Thank you for advising on treating the Dialogues sections like a play. I'm a little bit confused by the information provided in the Wiki when it comes to stage directions.
On the Plays page it says this: "The stage directions are normally marked as normal text."
But on the italics page it says this: "Leave Italics in place when: … Stage Directions".
I think in the case of this book it mostly makes sense to do normal text. Is there a context where we would use emphasis styling on stage directions?
A: That is a mistake on the wiki. Good catch! We remove emphasis for stage directions as you can gleam their meaning from reading them, and the emphasis is just for visual decoration. I will remove the note about stage directions from the emphasis page. Thank you!
Q: Le Drap Blanc. There are a number of photographs throughout the course of this book. Some have nothing beneath them, some have text that, in the epub, look like normal text (see photo). Some of the text reads like a caption, but sometimes it just reads like a musing or random thought that only tangentially relates to the photograph. Should I leave this text as normal text or format the text as a caption?
In this example image, the text translates as: "He had posted some photos and postcards on the door of the refrigerator, or else on the door of his room."
A: Style them as normal.
Q: Le Drap Blanc. There are some … and — used to indicate that someone answering a question said nothing. Normally I'd put [blank] here, but since this is a French book, should I put… [vide]?
A: Using the french version of "Blank" is correct. The correct french translation to use is [tirets]. I ran this by our translator. I also updated the Text and Image page to include the french version.
Here's what I'm thinking:
h1: "Enquete sur 'l'histoire"…
h2: 1 de 9
h3: Profil Psychologique
I get stumped by the "conversation" part. Do I do emphasis on the questions? Or do I leave the questions as normal and do quotation styles for the answers? Other ideas?
A: The heading structure you chose makes sense! You can style both the questions and answers as normal as the meaning can be gleamed from reading the text.
Q: I'm working on Le Drap Blanc by Céline Huyghebaert. There is a cast ("personnages") of "characters" listed two pages prior to the "scene" in which they are featured. "Personnages" is not listed in the table of contents and therefore does not strike me as text that should be H1. However, if I make it H2, it'll be a heading under the previous section, not the section to which it is relevant (again, because that section comes two pages LATER).
Should I just do an H2 anyway?
A: Always follow the rule of hierarchy with headings. See Understanding Styles & Headings for more. Sometimes we create headings that are not in the original document as it makes it more accessible for navigation. Headings are the most important part of navigation to create an accessible version of a book. Apply H1 to the heading. This is also a play segment. See Plays for more info.
Q: I know we delete previews in MP3 to DAISY, but I couldn't find anything about previews in the Wiki for ePub production. I'm editing a "middle readers" book and it has a multi-page preview at the end for another book by the author. Do I delete it? If not, what heading should it go under?
Edit: The book in question is "The Ride Home" by Gail Anderson-Dargatz. The "Sneak Peek" for "Iggy's World" comes right after the About the Author.
A: We can remove the preview section. Thank you for your question!
Q: We Rise Again has a number of pages styled completely different than the main pages (see example below). I've been styling them as secondary content in text boxes. Is this the right approach? If it is, should I include the image inside the text box as well? If I do, it will mean the text box can't all fit on one page. Thanks!
A: Yes. Include the image. Remember you can also resize the image to fit it on the page. If this does not work then put the term Aside in the heading and I will manually code them during conversion. I will also place a ticket into DAISY to see if this issue can be fixed.
Q: We Rise Again has captions referring to image collages and images spread over multiple pages. I'll post two examples below.
Should I crop out all the individual photos? How would I proceed to caption these images?
A: The images will need to be cropped and described each separately. A lot of these fall into the Group of Images category, meaning they are similar images with only small changes. In those cases only fully describe the first image and then describe what changes in the following images. Place them all in a logical reading order. Start at the top and move left and order them that way. If there is a clear focus image (bigger than the others) then that can go first in reading order.
As for the captions, it seems like there is a lot of inconsistency. A lot of this will be a bit of a judgement call based on what the captions say, and what will make them the most accessible. Do the following:
There are a couple outliers to the above, as this book is not consistent with its formatting. These will require a judgement call, remember we are making this accessible. So ask yourself if it would be more accessible as body text or if it is okay as a caption.
Q: General question for a number of upcoming non-fiction books: Should we keep "COVID" all-caps? While it's a medical word, given that it is not pronounced letter-by-letter in general society, I'm wondering if it would be frustrating for listeners to hear it spelled out one letter at a time.
A: Really good question. There are variations on how screenreaders will read the Acronym, and also people will be reading this book with a braille display. Since some screen readers will read it as a full word, and braille readers will need to proper acronym we should keep it in all caps.
Q: Another We Rise Again question. After the table of contents (deleted) and before the "Foreword" are two images. The second image is paired with a caption and some other text. Should I move these images under "Foreword" in the formatted doc? Is there another heading I should put them under. Right now the heading that directly precedes them is "Dedication" (because of the deleted table of contents).
Here is the photo with text:
The bottom text I would style as a caption and I'm thinking the other text is a quotation/citation.
A: It is important to keep the original reading order of the book. In this case a lot of these pages are 2 page spreads as it is a fixed layout formatted title. The image with the caption on the next page can go under Forward to match where its caption is. Remember, we don't want to reorder books as we are not editors, but this book has a lot of weird formatting.
Q: We Rise Again has a title page with a bunch of images on it.
1) The subtitle is above the title on this page. Should I instead put it in the Title Page as "We Rise Again: More Stories of Hope and Resilience from Nova Scotia During the Covid-19 Pandemic" ?
2) What should I do with these images? Since they don't seem entirely decorative, I'm thinking of cropping out the four images and inserting them into the Title Page (with alt-text). I've never seen an edited title page with images like this, though, so I'm not 100% on this move. The logo I would replace with text and I would not include the plaid background.
Q: I am currently working on Queer Returns, and there is one weird file issue. In chapter 9 there is what looks to me like a picture caption, but there is no image? I'm not sure how to proceed here. Thanks for your help!
A: It looks like a reference to the essay itself. All the essays have citations to their original publications.
Q: I am currently working on the MP3 to DAISY Le Carnet d'Allie. However, it's all in French. I understand none of it. I can kind of guess where some of it is but not even enough to be sure. For example in chapter one they did a preamble of some sort, and then introduced the book, and then chapter 1, but I haven no clue what the preamble said and whether it needs to stay or be removed. What do people do in these cases? Is there any transcript I can look at of the MP3 file available anywhere? I'm nervous to mislabel or remove important information.
A: You need to be able to understand French to reformat Audio. I will take the ticket from you and assign to a French speaker.
Q: I have a question about headings in the picture book "On the Trapline". For context,each spread has only one image. In some cases the image stretches across two pages with the text above or beneath. In other cases there is an image on one page with the relevant text on the opposite page. I know we normally do a heading for each individual page, but I'm wondering if in this case I should do a heading for each spread (pages 1-2, pages 2-3). This would allow for consistently, because otherwise some pages will be just text and others just pictures and no text. Is that okay?
A: If you do not understand French, you can not edit a french audiobook. I will take this ticket away from you and assign it to a french speaker.
A:Great question! We want to retain the same pages, so you will need to crop the two spread images to make separate pages (
Page Two). The other page types are a bit of a judgement call. You can stay true to the original and have Page Three with only text, and Page 4 with only an Image, or you can combine them both into one page and make the heading of
Page 3 and 4.
Remember that the Children's Books wiki has an Alt-text page here. You will find examples on how to describe two page spreads.
You will need to extract and crop the images. The directions to extract with eCanCrusher are on the Extract images from EPUB files page. I will add a section on cropping images. To crop the images you will us PIXLR and save as JPG files.
I made a video walking through all of this here: https://screencast-o-matic.com/watch/crX0FjVIAo8
Let me know if you need more clarification.
Q: Winking at Life has an "On the Cover" section included in its front matter. It lists out the individuals featured on the book's cover page. Should I retain as-is and add H1 to the section title? Should I delete altogether? Should I delete and include the information in the Cover alt-text? Or something else entirely?
A: Good question. In this context you can add it into the Alt-text.
Q: Currently working on Pendent que Perceval Tombait (poem). The final section of the book says: " Les Herbes rouges remercient le Conseil des arts du Canada, le Fonds du livre du Canada ainsi que la Société de développement des entreprises culturelles du Québec pour leur soutien financier.
Les Herbes rouges bénéficient également du Programme de crédit d’impôt pour l’édition de livres du gouvernement du Québec.
Éditions Les Herbes rouges C.P. 48880, succ. Outremont Montréal (Québec) H2V 4V3 Téléphone : (514) 279-4546 lesherbesrouges.com
en couverture Sara Angelucci, 2020 détail de Summer walk, Caledonsérie Timescape, n° 9, 2003 épreuve chromogène, 16 po × 37 po sara-angelucci.ca
distribution Diffusion Dimedia inc. 514 336-3941 dimedia.com
diffusion en europe Librairie du Québec Téléphone : +33 1 43 54 49 02 librairieduquebec.fr"
This translates roughly to:
"Les Herbes Rouges would like to thank the Canada Council for the Arts, the Canada Book Fund and the Société de développement des entreprises culturelle du Québec for their financial support.
Les Herbes Rouges also benefits from the Quebec government's Book Publishing Tax Credit Program.
Les Herbes Rouges editions C.P. 48880, succ. Outremont Montreal (Quebec) H2V 4V3 Telephone: (514) 279-4546 lesherbesrouges.com
In front page Sara Angelucci, 2020 detail of Summer walk, Caledonseries Timescape, n ° 9, 2003 chromogenic print, 16 in × 37 in sara-angelucci.ca
distribution Diffusion Dimedia inc. 514 336-3941 dimedia.com
broadcast in europe Quebec Bookstore Telephone: +33 1 43 54 49 02 librairieduquebec.fr"
What should the heading of this be? It doesn't really seem to match up to our normal headings. It's a declaration/acknowledgement, almost, followed by the Publisher's address and information.
A: It is an Acknowledgement page. French:
Q: Currently working on Pendent que Perceval Tombait (poem). I saw a previous Q&A mentioned that all blank pages should be removed (we do not need to keep same page numbering), but we can keep the text on separate pages for the poetry book. I know that we also have to remove page breaks. Is this the exception for page breaks? The answer in that Q&A was not clear to me. Otherwise, how would you keep the text on separate pages? There are often no headings, so I can't even use headings as a divider instead. Each page has 4-5 lines, and then skips to the next page.
A: That was back from when we did DAISY. I removed that line from the wiki. Just format it with headings and no page breaks. We don't keep page numbering in conversion.
Q: I've never worked on a French book before. Currently working on Pendent que Perceval Tombait. All the headings we input are in French(and are given to us in the wiki), except for the heading for "Cover". I looked it up and there are two different words for Cover (for book) in French, and I don't know enough French to know which one to use.
Wiki doesn't provide the French version like it usually does for all the other headings: https://wiki.libraries.coop/doku.php?id=public:nnels:etext:cover-page
What word should I use for the heading "Cover"?
A: Good question. It is
Couverture. I updated the wiki page to include this
Q: Cooking for Two has an extensive index with no page numbers, but each work is linked to the relevant recipe. I know we would normally delete this and replace with our own producers note, but this also has information about the TOC so I just wanted to check! Thanks.
A: We can remove this section as it is about the original ebook and not the reformatted version. We remove TOC's from the eText (even the ones at the beginning of the chapter.) You can retain the links, just check them to make sure they go to the right places (hint: in document links are always bookmarks, so you may need to open those up to examine them.)
Q: alfabet / alphabet features several words in Friesian, which is not included in the list of languages available in Microsoft Word. Should I format these as I would Indigenous words and leave a comment accordingly?
A: Great question! Yes, you can treat it similarly to Indigenous languages on Turtle Island.
Q: It Was Never Going to Be Okay features a poem featuring a bunch of emojis. What do I do with these? Is this an alt-text question?
A: These are treated like symbols. You can use unicode for emojis. The direction is on the Symbols, Abbreviations & Acronyms Page.
Q: Do we check to make sure the links of all the active URLs in bibliographies work? (Example: Baby Girl: Better Known as Aaliyah)
A: Good question! Yes, we have to make sure all the links work.
Q: In Baby Girl: Better Known as Aaliyah, there's an editor's note below the Index heading: "A note about the index: The pages referenced in this index refer to the page numbers in the print edition. Clicking on a page number will take you to the ebook location that corresponds to the beginning of that page in the print edition. For a comprehensive list of locations of any word or phrase, use your reading system’s search function."
I know I need to add a Producer's Note. Am I right to assume I need to remove all the links in the index (but leave the page numbers)? And should I also remove this note?
A: We remove all page numbers unless specifically requested by the patron. In this case, the page numbers were not asked for, so we remove them. It there are page numbers in the book, or running headers, there is a way to remove them using Find and Replace. You can find the instructions on this page. Yes, you would remove all the links in the Index as well, and you can remove that note as it is about the original ebook version and not about the converted version we are creating. The producer's note you would use is found in the wiki section on Indexes.
Q: I'm working on the Cooking for Two cookbook. I know that we format something as a list, even when it isn't presented that way in the source file, and we previously discussed formatting the recipe variation sections as lists. My questions is to what degree do I format these sections as lists? Should I just make each sentence a list? Or when there is a list within a sentence should I use a nested list? This often occurs when they are listing what to substitute. I've been debating back and forth, and I know consistency is important. I'm a bit in the weeds on this and really appreciate your help. The following are two instances of what I'm referring to regarding the sections that need to be lists.
A: The general rule is if it is a list, or can be a list (i.e. directions, items separated by commas, etc.) then it should be formatted as such. I am going to download the book and take a look more at the pages again. I will update this space once I have a clearer idea of the changes in the book.
Q: Light Chaser has several sections where large blocks of text are in italic to indicate when the main character is exploring the memories of a cybernetic body (or something like that). Sometimes the text goes back and forth between italic and normal to show the character moving through the memories versus having thoughts about them in the present. Here's a screenshot of what the original word doc looks like (italics highlighted):
I have NOT been adding emphasis to any of these large blocks of text given italics isn't accessible in text blocks of that size. Do we feel the m-dashes breaking up the text blocks do enough to indicate the character slipping in and out of the cybernetic memory?
A: I think you have the right approach here. The paragraph breaks and m dashes are enough. We can only work with what we have. Good work!
Q: I am working on Prairie Fire and I've noticed that some of the language used in the book is not appropriate now (e.g; "Indians" being used to describe Indigenous people could be offensive to a lot of people). Is this something that we can make a note about at the top, something along the lines of "The language used in this book may misrepresent some Indigenous people or be considered offensive". Or should I just leave it be?
A: (I moved your image question to the Alt-text Q&A page)So in this case it is all about context. This is a historical book about a specific time, and the writers explain their work in the introduction. It was also written in 1994 when the word was more commonly used in a historic and political context. I did some more digging into the book, and one author is a university professor who has done extensive writing in Indigenous histories, and the other is a former director of the Treaty and Aboriginal Rights Research Centre of Nova Scotia who has even appeared in court to defend treaty rights. This is always a topic of discussion in libraries and publishing, and as a digital library, we can help give context to the book as we present it in the repository, but not in the book itself. I will be taking this question to the rest of the senior staff as well to get their feedback. Great Question! I will update this answer once we settle on the best way to approach this book.
Q: What do we do with DRM pages/"Copyright Notices"? (In Light Chaser, the following blurb is in the front matter while the publishing information is at the back of the book):
The author and publisher have provided this e-book to you without Digital Rights Management software (DRM) applied so that you can enjoy reading it on your personal devices. This e-book is for your personal use only. You may not print or post this e-book, or make this e-book publicly available in any way. You may not copy, reproduce or upload this e-book, other than to read it on one of your personal devices. Copyright infringement is against the law. If you believe the copy of this e-book you are reading infringes on the author's copyright, please notify the publisher at: http://us.macmillanusa.com/piracy.
Q: I'm working on Lucy Growing Up Human (a delightful PDF haha) and I have a couple heading questions. First, the first page of the book is like a character list (see image below). Should I leave the heading as "growing up human" (as it appears to be on that page), or should I add a heading for "Character list" or something? Second, there is the section of photographs in the middle chapter 6. Once again there is a heading called "growing up human". Should I leave this heading and leave the section in the middle of the chapter, or leave the heading but move to the end of the chapter? Thanks for your help! These headings always feel less straightforward in these PDFs.
A: I always want to apologize for the fun of PDF's, especially these ones that are scanned from old print books! Keep the first heading as is, as we don't want to change too much of the original. Move the second heading and section to the end of that chapter to avoid any navigation confusion. Remember to apply a lower heading level to the picture section as it is a subsection to the chapter. Thanks!
Q: I'm working on Sister Outsider; there are two pages in the back matter with links leading off to publisher reading lists/catalogs and a newsletter sign up (one page is Crossing Press; one page is for Penguin Random House). Do I delete these pages? If not, what heading should I give them?
A: Good question. You can delete these sections
Q: This is for Prarie Fire. In the endnotes, before the endnotes start, there is a little preface with the different acronyms and their long versions. How do I add this in? Just make a section before the endnotes named "NOTES" and have it written in?
Q: I'm working on Blade of the Poisoner and all the parts, chapters, and subsection headings are hyperlinked to the Table of Contents (that I removed). I understand we're only supposed to remove links to index items, but in this case the links all just lead to the top of the document and don't take the user to an external website. Should I still leave these links in?
A: Remove these hyperlinks.
Q: Should text messages/"Facebook posts"/etcetera be styled with emphasis if they are italicized in the original text? Do these operate as thoughts? Specifically, I'm editing A Dream of a Woman and there are a lot of text message exchanges like this:
Buzz in his bag. Probably her. He sat on a bench, pulled on his hair, opened his phone guiltily, and it was Iris: Hey sweetiepants! I’m drunk near your restaurant, whatcha doing? The feeling of sweat and grossness flickered brighter exactly once in his body. Then he called her.
A: To answer your question: it would depend on the book and the usage. Remember emphasis is not very accessible overall, so we want to avoid it as much as possible. I looked over the first few pages on the book and this is what I noticed:
In the example you give above, it is a bit of a judgement call. The emphasis does seem to be adding meaning to the text in this case, and it is only one sentence. If it was more than 2-3 or was a paragraph it should be removed, but it is one sentence. We need to ask ourselves: if we remove the emphasis/italics can the meaning of the text still be understood by the reader? In this specific example I am leaning more towards no, so it can be kept.
Note: there are always some exceptions to these guidelines, so whenever in doubt ask!
Q: Could there be a wiki page for general paragraph/body content formatting? Do I need space between paragraphs? Should I left-align body content for ease of editing? I feel like I did some of these things during testing but I couldn't find information about it on the Wiki.
A: So we don't do anything special to body content other than clearing formatting so it is set to Normal, adding complex formatting as needed (lists, emphasis, block quote), and removing extra spaces (including paragraph breaks (that was asked on the test), tabs, carriage breaks, etc.)
The Styles & Headings page talks about how we build up a book after clearing formatting. There is a tip in there about spacing, and I added a not about Justification for clarity: https://bclc.wiki.libraries.coop/doku.php?id=public:nnels:etext:styles_headings
Q: I have a question about Inkling. When the Inkling character speaks, the text is bold and all caps (no quotation marks). Obviously not accessible. Is there another way I should designate this as dialogue (emphasis style?)or should I just leave as normal text? Thanks!
A: First off, I now want to read this book. In this case you can remove the All Caps and use Sentence Capitalization and apply
Q: Okay this is so crazy. I know I'm not supposed to edit the book. But is there any way to let the publisher know? I am working on Iconic Stories from 150 Years of Sport, and on page 214 while writing alt-text and reading the captions, I noticed that the captions were wrong for each image after the first. I went to the original book to see if I mixed them up somehow, and I didn't! The last caption for that set of photos should be the second caption, and all other captions should be for the photo below it (idk if that made sense). Is this just basically out of our hands? It just won't make sense, when the ereader reads the caption, it won't match up with the alt-text. It'll be pretty jarring for several images!
A: That is not good for anyone! As this is a special project for a publisher, we can directly contact them. I am in the process of getting in touch with the publisher to see how they wish us to proceed. I will keep you posted.
Q: One more question about Orange Shirt Day! Each chapter has review questions and some of the questions in Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7 ask you to fill in the blank. The blanks were removed from the word document I'm working on, but I'm not sure how to add them back in in an accessible way. Thanks for your help!
A: Good question. You can treat it the same way you would for transcribing a form with blanks. Replace with
[blank]. See more in Images of Text
Q: I'm working on Orange Shirt Day and have a few questions. In the text are bolded vocabulary terms which refer to the glossary (Chapter 9). Additionally, the vocabulary terms are also at the bottom of the page they are found on. The text specifies: "Terms that require a definition will be shown in bold font. For these terms, there will be a definition provided at the bottom of the text and/or in the back of the book in the glossary." Regarding the vocabulary terms, should I apply strong style? Regarding the terms and definitions at the bottom of the pages, should I leave them as part of the natural flow of text or treat them as an aside? Thanks!
A: For this title, you can apply strong style to the bolded letters since the text directly states all glossary terms are in bold. You can treat those other sections as asides. It looks like they used space and slightly smaller font to visually separate the text on the page.
Q: I am working on Prairie Fire and this is my first time working on endnotes. I am a little confused about three things:
1. If the endnotes are not at the very end of the book (in this book, they come before the Bibliography and Index), do I still move them to the end of the book? Or do I move the sections that come after it back underneath it so it still follows the book order?
Do I do this: Notes [Heading 1] Chapter 1 [Heading 2] end note end note end note Chapter 2 [Heading 2] end note end note end note
OR do I do this: Notes [Heading 1] end note end note end note end note end note end note
I'm assuming I go with the first option? However, I couldn't find anything in the End Notes in wiki or in the Q&A about how to handle end notes separated by headings.
3. What do I do when they indicate the same number for the endnotes multiple times? (for example, 1 is randomly inserted in multiple sections). How do I properly link them?
Thanks so much!
A: We do not divide the Endnotes under headers, and we use continuous numbers, and do not repeat numbers. We reinsert all the notes as Endnotes with continuous numbers despite what it looked like in the original. Those headings are not make the notes more accessible. You only need a linked note to be accessible, so we remove the headings. There is an Advanced Tip area that shows you how to track endnotes that repeat numbers in the original ebook. Advanced Tips. Notes will always take extra time and attention, so do not rush, go through it carefully until you find your rhythm.
FOLLOW UP Q: So just to confirm, the endnotes are at the end of the book. But the Advanced Tips are telling me to do the end notes at the end of the chapters instead (by creating a section break, changing endnote dialogue settings to "restart at each section", coping and pasting everything in, and then removing the section breaks and changing it back to "continuous"). This means that the end notes will no longer be where they were originally in the book (at the end of the book), but rather, they will be at the end of every chapter.
I apologize if this is very clear and I'm just getting confused. I find the wording on the wiki a little difficult to visualize. I want to be absolutely sure before I do this, because there are 16 pages of end notes in this book and that's a lot of fixing to do if what I'm understanding is not what the Wiki is telling me.
A: Endnotes always go at the end of a book. Footnotes go at the end of a section. Just put them all in as endnotes. I will review the wiki language next week and make any clarifying revisions.
Q: Working on Prairie Fire and it has a lot of photos. The text surrounds the photo. The photo usually has text about the photo underneath. It creates a break between the last thing being said by the book and the image itself. Very jarring, even for myself. Usually when I do "In line with text" wrapping, the text will fix itself around the image to finish sentences or paragraphs, but it doesn't do it in this book. Do I just leave it? Do I move the image?
Q: Working on Prairie Fire and there is a Preface in the book where the authors talk about the making of the book. The final sentence is a dedication. This is within the preface. I assume that I do not have to separate them and put a dedication heading? Because I don't want to edit the book, just make it accessible?
Also, this book does not have a cover. In the PDF of the book, the cover page is just the title and author names. In this instance, we do not have a cover to keep. Should I indicate this in RT when submitting? Is the cover missing from the PDF? Because when googling, there does seem to be a cover for the book, just not included here.
Q: Another question for "Angel Wing Splash Pattern," in the story "How I saved Christmas" the author uses lists that have bold and underlined titles. I know we are not supposed to use bold and underline formatting except when it conveys important information, such as poetry, so I am wondering if it would be appropriate to format these as nested lists, with the title at level 1 and the listed items at level 2? See example: Edit: I am now thinking it may be best to format the list titles as sub-headings and I am wondering if there would be issues with accessibility if there are two non-consecutive sub-headings that have the same wording, i.e. two sub-headings titled "Things to do today"?
A: This answer is linked to the below edit as well. All the bold underline text should be styled a sub headings. If the content in that subsection is a list, style as a list. If it is not a list, style as normal.
Q: One more question for "Angel Wing Splash Pattern," in the story "How I saved Christmas" the text includes some short poems with bolded and underlined titles, e.g. Vidoe Games and Pornos. Should the bold and underline formatting be removed and normal style applied to all three lines of the poem? Edit: As I'm working through the story there seems to be a number of other sections that are mostly prose that also use bold and underlined titles for and I'm thinking it might be appropriate to format all the titles as sub-headings.
A: Titles of poems are styled as headings. See Poetry for more info.
Q: Another question for "Angel Wing Splash Pattern," in the short story "The Night Charles Bukowski Died" each paragraph is formatted as one long sentence with no commas, semi-colons, or periods, which seems like it would make it very difficult to follow the story through a screen reader. I know we are not editors and we are not supposed to add anything to the text, so I am wondering if I should include a producer's note stating that the original story does not contain proper punctuation marks? Or if there is another way to make the story more accessible? I have included a screenshot of one of the longer paragraphs for an example.
A: We are not editors, adding punctuation would break copyright law. It would also be purely subjective, as you do not know the authors intent, and they can not weigh in on the changes. We never make such content changes in respect to the author and copyright laws in Canada.
Q: Another question about My Art is Killing Me (poetry). There are parts of the poems that use a different color for the words to convey the author speaking to the reader.
A: Put a not in a Producer's Note stating the original used colour to convey emphasis and was removed in this version. We can not apply our own emphasis as that would be editing the book with our interpretation of the artist's intent and would break copyright law. Unfortunately, as you know, coloured font is not accessible. The Producer's Note is the middle ground.
Q: I'm working on "Love after the end", specifically the short story "How to Survive the apocalypse for native girls" (on page 75). The whole story is formatted as a list. Many of the numbers are several paragraphs long, and some of the list items are "#.5". It seems to me like a narrative device without actually being a list. Should I apply list formatting? Or should I do paragraph breaks between the list sections? Thanks!
A: It looks like it is a narrative devise (one paragraph is 3.5!) Style as normal.
Q: Working on My Art is Killing Me (poetry) and there is this formatting in one of the poems:
Do I keep it? I'm leaning on *not*. In that case, how do I format it? Just remove the lines?
A: Replace the lines with commas.
Q: Another question for "Angel Wing Splash Pattern," part of the publication information has been format formated in a text box and I was wondering if I should move the text to the body document and delete the text box? Or should the information stay in a text box to be more consistent with the source pdf document?
A: Do not add a text box to the Publishing Information. We do not add any additional formatting Publishing Information.
Q: I am working on "Angel Wing Splash Pattern (20th anniversary edition)"and have a couple of questions. First, I know that we are now supposed to keep the cover images for all books, but the cover on the copy retrieved from Cyberduck is simple black text on a white background.
However, after noticing that the publishing information contains a credit for the book cover design, I found a copy on the publisher's website for the book that has an image of the northern lights on the cover.
My question is: Should I stick with the text-based cover page found in the Cyderduck copy or should I insert the cover image from the publisher's website?
A: No, we only work with what the publisher sends us.
I am working on Fake it so Real and there is a part in the book where the character calls her mom twice and her mom answers. However, the part where her mom talks is centered to the page and in a different font. Should I use "Quote" style on it or leave it alone?
A: Style as Normal and keep in its own paragraph. The meaning of the text is evident when you read it.
Q: I'm working on Vancouver Exposed which has sections of text in boxes - they seem like asides, but they also seem to fit within the narrative flow? Can I format these in text boxes like we did for fight like a physicist?
A: You can put them into text boxes. These will translate to <aside> tags when I convert it to an EPUB3!
Update: Thank you! I've started adding the text boxes but I'm running into an issue. A couple of the asides have footnotes. I had preinserted the footnotes and when I put them into the text box, they deleted. I did some research and it looks like word doesn't support inserting footnotes into text boxes? It looks like there are a couple work arounds (see the link below) but I don't know if these will work for us? How should I proceed?
A: None of these workarounds would be accessible. Since they seem to fit into the narrative flow, then put content breaks above and below each aside section.
Q: Another question for "Teenage Idol, Travelin' Man," I am wondering how to handle the photo spread between pages 136-137 of the book to make it accessible. As the pages are unnumbered and the photos are not directly connected to the surrounding context is it okay to move them to the end of the chapter or book? Also, the book uses hyphens to break words between lines and usually I will just delete the hyphen to make the complete word, but the hamburger is broken up on pages 136 and 137 with the photo spread in between the two parts of the word, see attached image.
A: That is so weird. Move them to the end of the chapter. I am not sure if you found this yet, but there is a way to remove these types of hyphen breaks using Regex. You can also use Regex to get ride of all the running headers in the book (running headers are the headings on each page that often include the page number and title of book.) Here is the link to the documentation: https://bclc.wiki.libraries.coop/doku.php?id=public:nnels:etext:regex If you already know this, than just ignore my feedback.
Q: I'm currently working on "Teenage Idol, Travelin' Man" and in the book they will quote scenes from a stage act, see attached image. I would like to check what the most accessible way to format these sections would be. Presently, I am thinking that the text should be formatted similar to a play with the names in strong style and want to confirm whether I can also apply the quote style without reducing accessibility?
A: You can format it as a quote and play.
Q: I am working on I Will Dance, and at the end of the children's book there is an "About" page for the Young Dance arts community.
How do I format this in the book? Do I transcribe the text underneath the image and describe the kids stretching in the alt-text as I've done with the rest of the book? Or do I remove this image (because it's decorative), replace with text and a header, and title it About Young Dance (header 1)? The text did not separate from the images in the conversion of this book, so I am having trouble figuring out how to appropriately keep this information. Thanks in advance!
A: If the images are decorative remove the image. About the Author page and About Young Dance page are considers images of text and always need to be fully transcribed. Add appropriate headings and style content as normal.
Q: I took the ticket for Kamik Takes the Lead. Most of the images in this book look broken (see example below). I found the wiki page for extracting images. I was wondering if that is the appropriate step to follow to fix this book?
A: This happens all the time with PDF's, and can happen with some FXL (fixed layout) EPUBS as well. You can follow the directions on how to export images from a PDF. Let me know if you are having any issues with getting the images, and I can extract them for you.
Q: I am just writing the tweet for Peanut Goes for the Gold, and I noticed that there is no available link to the record in the collection. The title is not searchable. I tried to search by author, and there was only one book in the collection by Jonathan Van Ness. Should it be searchable by now?
A: The title has not been published, so it is not searchable. You don't have to worry about getting me the links for tweets, as I am the one who will be publishing all the books you create.
Q: I have a question regarding tables in Satan is a Socialist. There are a few simple tables in the book formatted similar to the image of the table below. The tables usually have two rows, one header row and one with all the content. Should I be adding separate rows for each element in the list (e.g. one row for high/low government control, one row for high/low level of entitlements, and so on). Or is this fine as is? Thanks!
A: It looks like none of these are actually tables, but they used tables to create a columns for comparative lists. You can reformat them as nested lists.
Q: Another question from Satan is a Socialist! The author uses a number of different heading levels, and there are some sections throughout the text where paragraphs that start with a short section of italicized text (in the photo below I've highlighted them in yellow). I don't know If I should leave these as normal text, treat them as headings, or as a list (though sometimes the sections are several paragraphs).
A: Style those as sub headings as per the hierarchy level of that section. Sometimes publishers will put subheadings into the paragraph itself to save space, or because they like the look of it. When you read these phrases it is clear they are headings and not full sentences. Just be aware, that sometimes a publisher will also emphasize the first sentence of a paragraph, but in those situations it is clear it is a sentence from reading it.
Q: I'm working on Satan is a Socialist and I have a question about sidebars. This text uses a number of sidebars (usually just one sentence) to highlight main points in the text. I know our normal workflow is to move sidebars to the end of a section, but because these sidebars emphasize the text immediately above it I'm worried that taking them out of context will make them seem jarring. Should I move them to the end of a section, or is there another approach I should take? Thanks for your help!
A: These are actually not sidebars, but what publishers call pull quotes and they used lines and larger text to visually grab the readers attention. You can style them as quotes.
Q: I am currently working on "The Red Road and Other Narratives of the Dakota Sioux" and in part 1 there are three lists of tribes presented in tables. The first column contains the tribes name and the second column contains the english meaning of the tribes name. Because there are no column headers, I am wondering if it would be better to reformat the information in normal style?
A: So this is an example of a publisher using a table for layout purposes. If the information is a list, then it must be reformatted as a list to be accessible. See the List section for more information. For example:
Q:One other question regarding Qaqavii - In the Q&A section of the ebook there is a caption that is missing an image - so the image is obviously also missing from the word doc as well. The caption reads "Quincy Miller at the start line of the Hudson Bay Quest". Should I leave this as is?
Q: I am working on Qaqavii which has a Q&A with the author section at the end and I'm unsure if I should do any special formatting to designate the questions and answers. In the ebook the questions are bolded. I think I've used nested lists for Q&As in the past, but in this case the authors answers are often several paragraphs long so I"m not sure if this is the best approach. Thanks for your help?
A: You can leave the Questions Bolded in this context.
Q: I am working on "Arrows in a Quiver". I am a bit confused about how to section out these headings:
I know that part of it has to be done in caption formatting (under the image). How do I section out the part before (Map 4, Historical Treaties, Source)?
A: Great question. I opened up the book to look at the context, and in this case you should put all the information in the caption (no paragraph breaks.) If you created a heading then all the text under that heading would become part of a book section titled 'Map #' and that would be changing the meaning of the book.
Q: I'm working on Purchasing Power and the notes section has a brief preface with common abbreviations. I've added the notes according to the workflow and I'm wondering what to do with the remaining abbreviation information. Can I add a heading for "Abbreviations"? Thanks for your help!
A: Good question. Adding a heading for Abbreviations is a good way to go!
Q: Another question for "Until We Are Free," in the article "7 Organizing Direct Action in the Digital Age" there is a star symbol next to the first occurrence of the term "direct action" and an asterisk in-front of the heading of the next sub-section title 'what is direct action?'. It seems the star is being used to inform readers that this term will be explained later in the text and not as an endnote. As it does not seem that the star is not being used as an endnote reference should it be removed or should the star be replaced using the unicode symbol?
A: You can include an asterisk for both using your keyboard: * No need to use unicode for that symbol
Q: Another question for "Until We Are Free," in the article "6 Unbordable Blackness…" there is an endnote (#38) that does not contain any information. Should I remove the in-text reference to this endnote as I imagine that it could be confusing for the reader if they try to follow the endnote.
A: Yes, you can remove that reference. It was a mistake that slipped through editing.
Q: I am currently working on "Until We Are Free" and the introduction section of "2 Many a Thousand Gone" looks similar to a single level ordered list, in that many of the paragraphs are preceded by numbers, but some of the numbered items contain multiple paragraphs (e.g. item 6). My problem is that if I format this section as a single-level list each paragraph is assigned with a number, changing the original numbering scheme. I am wondering what is the best practice to maintain the original numbering scheme while also making the document accessible? Should only the numbered paragraphs be formatted as a list with the following paragraphs in normal style, or maybe as a multi-level list with following paragraphs on a lower-level?
A: This looks like an artistic choice, and not a navigational choice by the author and editor. This means it is not a formal list. Format it as normal paragraphs. I uploaded a sample of the section below.
Q: I am currently working on "L’accoucheuse de Scots Bay" and the list of works in the "Also by" section does use bullets. Is it okay to format this list with bullets to increase accessibility or would making that change break the copyright?
A: Using bullets in an unordered list is preferred, you are not breaking copyright if you are changing formatting to make it more accessible. That is the one thing that is allowed! Good question!
Q: I am working on "Until We Are Free" and one of the person's mentioned in the book stylizes their name as "iZrEAL Jones." I understand that this formatting will created problems for screen readers and that the name should be converted to standard capitalization for proper nouns. I am wondering though if there are any special considerations for proper nouns that I should be aware of?
A:You can follow the wiki guidelines for capitalization. The screenreader wont be able to read this name otherwise.
Q: I am working on metadata and it was all going really well until I came to the nnels genre taxonomy page. It instructs to download the excel sheet, however when I click on this item, I am directed to a page called "Forbidden". Is the link broken, or do I need more permissions or is this another glitch? Would it be possible to get the excel sheet emailed to me if it is a glitch? - Emiliya
A: It seems like a glitch. I emailed you the spreadsheet.
Q: In L’accoucheuse by Scots Baythere, there is a quote before the back cover, I wasn't sure what the section title for this should be so I have tentatively title it Post Script Quote and used deeply to translate it to "Citation post-scriptum." Is there a standard heading for this section?
A: This is an Epigraph. Though they are usually found at the beginning of a book, they can be found at the end. If a section just has a quote, and it is clearly not a book review section, then mark it as an Epigraph.
Q: I am doing metadata cleanup for the first time. I followed the wiki directions of going onto nnels.ca –> log in –> and then, when I search for "Shortcuts", I don't see it on the website. I did CTR + F "Shortcuts" and came up with 0 results. What am I doing wrong? :( Here is my screen:
I think it's safe to say that the question has been answered :) The CTRL + F function now shows 1/1 results for "Shortcuts" as well.
A:I received your question, and your additional email. Remember, all Q&A questions also go into my inbox, so you don't have to email me. The website was down last night for maintenance, and they are still working on some updates that will impact some features. As soon as this is cleared I will contact the team.
Q: Another question regarding "Dream First, Details Later". When I'm working in Sigil, I know I leave the alt-text for decorative images blank, but do I also leave the alt-text for decorative image section breaks blank, or should I write "break" for my alt-text? For example in this text there are three blue dots to mark section breaks. Thanks for your help!
A: A section break is a decorative image, so you leave the alt-text blank.
Q: I am currently working on "Americandreams.ca" which is a French language play. I understand that for play you are to apply strong style to characters name and place the lines and stage directions in normal style. One of the characters speaks English though, so there are whole sections of the play and a large number of lines in the play that are written in english that may be jarring from the constant back and forth. I am wondering if I still apply strong style and language markups to each of these sections and lines?
A: Always mark up languages with Strong Style. This is done so I can locate the markup easily and check it. I then remove the strong style for language before conversion. This is noted in the wiki section for languages in the note at the end of the documentation for how to mark up languages. I have revised this note to be more clear. If there are large sections of English then they have to be marked up, as per the language rules. It is with single words and small phrases where we have to be more cautious, as this can be jarring. In a multi-lingual play, it is not surprising to have different languages, and it is more cumbersome to the listener to hear entire phrases mispronounced.
Q: I was wondering if you could make me a video showing how to add Language mark-ups? I noticed that there is one section of the My Heart is Not Blind book that says a word in Hawaiian, and another that uses the word “nonna”. I looked on the wiki and found these instructions:
Marking up Languages To mark up secondary language:
Select the text Go to Tools > Language This will open a pop up menu Select the appropriate language Apply Strong style to the word or phrase
When passing the ticket to the Production Coordinator, please make note of what languages you used.
So I tried this, however I don’t think I am doing it right. It’s telling me to download the Italian package for Word, for example, when I select the appropriate language. I think I may be in the wrong section…?
A: It sounds like you need to download the language package to your Word in order to use that language tag. Windows makes you take a few extra steps to add languages you haven't used before. I found this website that breaks down how to apply, add, and use editing languages in Windows. Here is the link: https://www.customguide.com/word/how-to-change-language-on-word Note: The video at the top automatically stops to give you time to do the task, just hit play again to have it start up again.
Remember, we do not markup single words that are naturalized into English. Nonna is a word that is also pronounced the same in English, so no markup. The Hawaiian should be marked up, but there is no mark up for Hawaiian in Word …. which is just …so wrong… Mark the word as strong so I can find it and see if I can add a tag in the code. This will not be read by screenreaders though, so you can also add a producer's not stating that the book has words in Hawaiian that will not be pronounced correctly by assistive technology.
Q: I have a follow up question about the use of page numbers in “The Country will Bring Us No Peace”. The e-book is reflowable in Apple Books, Calibre, and Thorium so I can’t tell what the original page numbers are. I’m not sure how to approach this. Should I still use page numbers?
A: We do not retain page numbers, unless specifically requested. You do not need to add any page numbers, and if the book has running headers (page numbers and text in header or footer area of page) you will need to remove them. You can find directions on how to remove running headers in the Regex section of the wiki.
Q: I am currently working on the poetry book "Render" and one of the poems, "Following the Leader", was created to look like a list with sequential numbering on each line. Should I format the poem as a list (to avoid confusion from the sequential numbering) or leave the poem as it is because some of the sentences are spread across multiple lines?
A: Recreate it with the same numbers as it is in the original. The poet meant for the lines to break up like that, as this is a common technique in poetry to convey meaning an emotion.
Q:Also in "Render," there is a poem (There's Nothing There)that is created to look like a table and was formatted as table during the conversion process. Should I leave this poem in the table format?
A: This is not a table, it is three columns. Tables are used for tabular data, in this case it was used to create the layout for the columns. This is not accessible, and is also poor publishing practice. To create columns see Columns section.
Q: I am currently working on "Render" and it seems that a large number of bookmarks were created in the conversion process. Should I delete these bookmarks and only leave the ones that I have created for hyperlinks?
A: You don't have to worry about those extra bookmarks, they don't make it through conversion. It is only the ones you create hyperlinks for that make it through.
Q: For children's books, they don't normally have chapters, so we have to "divide each page into page numbers that match the original pages". For my book, Weekend Dad, when I look at the e-reader, the original pages don't have page numbers. How do I create headings with page numbers that match original pages, if the original pages do not have page numbers? Sorry if this question is weird and confusing.
A: Good Question! You can assign the first page of the story as Page One (heading 1) if there are no page numbers.
Q: There is a table in "The Canadian Prairies" that I am struggling with. The table is extensive and is split into two pages, and the header column is only visible on the first page - should I combine them into a single table?
A:You can combine it into the same table. If you follow the instructions on header rows in the wiki it will be fine: https://bclc.wiki.libraries.coop/doku.php?id=public:nnels:etext:tables#table_headers
Q: I'm working on "This Country Will Bring Us No Peace" which is another title with no chapters, only section breaks. Is this a case in which I need to use page numbers? This seems similar to the case of "No Way Out" which was a previous Q&A question - but I wanted to double check.
A: You are correct!
Q: In Cosmic Queries, the index includes a note that page number in bold refer to images. Should I apply strong formatting to the relevant page numbers or leave without formatting. I figure that the formatting here does provide additional meaning (that the references are to images), however, I wasn't sure if this was relevant in the case of an index.
A: In this case you can keep the bold. Don't forget to include the Producer's Note about Indexes!
Q: In Joy of Cooking, some sections include methods of cooking which are formatted as shown in this image:
With the beginning of the sentence describing the method bolded and italicized (To prepare a water bath; to test baked custards for doneness; to cook custards using an immersion circulator). Should these be formatted in any special way?
A: You can remove the styling from those phrases as they styling is just for visual purposes and adds not additional meaning to the text. When someone reads the text, they will understand what it is saying without the extra styles. We want to avoid using bold and emphasis where ever possible as it can create accessibility errors.
Q: I'm working on poetry book The East Side of it All, and there is complex formatting on some poems. From the poetry wiki page, I understand that I should maintain left justification and add a producers note explaining that we were not able to maintain these design elements. The example producers note says "For poems that originally appeared with more complex formatting there are in-text producer’s notes." I'm not clear on what an in-text producer's note looks like. Do I add the note after the poem title, or after the whole poem in question? Thanks!
A: We no longer do in-text production notes, they are an old practice from when we made DAISY books. That was an error that has been removed. You only need to put in the Producer's Note at the beginning of the book. You should mention in the Producer's Note that 'The Great Snake' originally appeared as a concrete poem in the shape of a snake, and follow the wiki guidelines for how to convert concrete poems.
Q: In the complete cooking for two cookbook, each chapter starts with an index of recipes and some of those recipes have a yellow or red square beside them indicating if the recipe is "fast" or "light". There is a legend at the bottom of the index. How should I handle this?
A: In the Alt-Text enter the word 'Fast' or 'Light' into the correct squares. I also noted there were instances where there were images of the actual words 'Fast' and 'Light'. For those instances replace with just the correct word and remove the image.
Q: I understand that when I am keeping page numbers (in the case of All the Rage) I should not start a new page with an image. There are a few instances in All the Rage where an image is placed at the beginning of the page. In these cases, should I place the image on the previous page? Or move some text from the previous page down so it is above the image?
A: There is no need to reorder the text, we want to keep it as close to the original as possible. It is okay to start a page with an image.
Q: And I actually have another question on this book (No Way Out). This is the first time I've seen a novel without any chapters at all. Even the beginning of the text, after the title page, dedication and publishing information, just starts with a blank page. So, I'm having a hard time deciding about headings. Should there be none at all? There are quite a few internal divisions marked by three asterisks that I'm replacing with horizontal lines, but nothing to indicate chapters of any kind. There are newspaper articles, emails, and dialogue transcripts interspersed throughout the story and I'm wondering whether I should format the first line of those as headings, both to distinguish them from surrounding text, and to add some sort of navigation tool?
A: In this case we can insert page numbers as based on the PDF. You can insert page numbers in the Header or Footer of the Word document and choose numbering as per the print book. Microsoft Word allows you to use upper/lower roman numerals like I, ii, iii or Arabic numbering 1,2,3.
Let me know if you have any more questions about this process.
Q: In No Way Out (a novel), there are a number of interview transcripts formatted the same way as plays (each new line of dialogue starts with the character's name followed by a colon). Am I good to apply Strong style to the characters' names the same way as I would in a play?
A: You are correct, you can format these sections as a play.
Q: In February’s Son, there are sections of text from the killer’s POV which are always on their own page, and styled with italics. Throughout the text I was planning on using context breaks to distinguish these sections, but there is one of these POV sections that comes after the epigraph but before the first top level heading that starts the body text of the novel (H1:10th February, 1973 H2: One). There is no section heading in the table of contents, but I wondered if I needed to add some kind of section heading to distinguish it from the epigraph section? Or should I leave as is?
A: Leave it as is. We are not editors, so we do not add this type of formatting to books.
Q:I have a question regarding endnotes in “The Love of Strangers”. Words or phrases throughout the text are hyperlinked to a notes section. Each entry in the notes section is organized with a page number, hyperlink and then the note. I’m wondering how to approach these. When insert them as endnotes, I was assuming I would leave the hyperlink. Should I also leave the page number that is listed?
A: You can remove the hyperlinks and page numbers and enter the notes in as listed endnotes in order. Place each not at the end of the original hyperlinked phrase. For example, you first number (1) would go after the phrase "Iranian students." with no hyperlink since the note number is the link. The publisher was trying to be cool with their formatting, but it is not accessible.
Q: One more math related question! In Fight Like a Physicist, some of the chapters have "Math Box" Text boxes in which the author does some specific math calculations. I've been treating these as asides (as per the wiki) and moving them to the end of a section, however I'm noticing that in some cases, normal text after the text box is referring directly to calculations within the text box, so rather than maintaining narrative flow by moving the box, it seems like I'm interrupting it (one example of this is in Chapter 3: A circular path can protect you from the full force of gravity). Should I leave the text boxes where they are? If so, how do I distinguish where the textbox ends and where normal text resumes? Thanks for your help!
A: Enter them into textboxes and markup heading without the phrase 'Aside'. (Insert > Text Box). This text box will translate to an <aside> tag when converted to EPUB3.
Q: In Joy of Cooking, I'm second and third guessing myself in how I'm handling the recipes. They are all structured the same way. They start with a serving size and a small paragraph about the recipe. And then they go into the steps and listing what ingredients are needed for each step.
And right now, this is how I am currently thinking I should handle them (but I keep flip-flopping):
How would you like me to format the recipes so I can ensure I am doing it consistently and can stop going back and forth with myself?
PS. This cookbook is amazing. I may play Recipe Roulette with it.
A: The way you have done it is correct!
Q: In Joy of Cooking, the authors make use of 3 symbols to indicate optional steps or tips/tricks. The triangle and arrows appear as images in the Word doc. How should I handle these?
Example in context:
A: Use Unicode to enter them in as symbols. Here are the wiki directions for how to treat symbols.
Q: I have a question about hyperlinks. In the book I'm working on (The Next Big Thing), there are quite a few links to websites and I've been checking each one, as per the wiki instructions. I came across one though where the link works, and it does take you to a working website but it's clearly not the one the author intended. The website link is nanotechproject.org but the site has nothing to do with nanotech, it's basically a huge ad for penis enlargement devices (so, very spammy). Should I leave the link alone since it works even if it isn't working as intended?
A: That is an uncomfortable find. In this case I would just remove the link, we don't want our patron to get spam on his computer.
Q: I have an additional question related to the previously mentioned math equations. The author sometimes refers to components of the equations in the text in which case he often uses the variable (a capital letter or symbol) and a descriptor of the variable in subscript. Can I apply direct formatting to achieve the subscript? Or should I leave as is (i.e. Rimpact)?
A: This is a visual design thing, so in this case just write out the word Rimpact.
Q: In 500 years of Indigenous resistance, at the beginning of the section "Extermination and Assimilation" there is an image of 5 maps that spans across two pages, so the map in the middle is divided in two. In the alt-text of the second map image I've stated that it is a continuation of the previous image" as the wiki instructs. My concern is, in the document, the first part of the map image is placed before the section heading, so the two parts of the image are in two different sections. Is this an issue?
A: Great Question! You can move the first map just below the heading so they are in the same section.
Q: Stay the Blazes Home makes frequent reference to COVID-19 with COVID being capitalized. I realize this is an acronym and so we would usually leave it capitalized, but I'm wondering if I can change it to lower case letters due to the frequency used (I don't want it to be jarring to the reader to have the letters read out each time) and because people often pronounce it "covid" in everyday speech? Thanks for your help!
A: You can leave it as COVID.
Q: The book A Different Mirror by Ronald Takaki is converted from a digitized version of the book, which have made some things messy. There are notes in each chapter of the book, which are not linked in the EPUB version. I'm having difficulties locating many of these, perhaps due to the conversion process. How should I approach editing the notes in this book?
Should I edit incorrectly converted words, such as in this sentence:
"… when they are wiUiong to sell" even though this is how they appear in the EPUB version?
A: This is a very low quality digitization of the print version, with way too many errors. Please see my email for more information. I took this book out of production.
Q: One more question regarding There be Pirates. This is juvenile non-fiction book that utilizes a glossary to define unfamiliar vocabulary. Through out the text, these vocabulary words are highlighted in bold to indicate they can be found in the glossary. Would it be best to leave these words without formatting, or use emphasis?
A: You can leave it as bold style.
Q:A questions regarding headings in There be Pirates. I understand from the Wiki that I need to nest headings without skipping (Styles and Headings). I'm currently using Chapter Headings [Heading 1], Section Headings [Heading 2] and Asides [Heading 3]. These nest appropriately in all sections except for the beginning of the introduction in which asides that appear before any section headings, so I go from Introduction [Heading 1], to Heading 3 for these asides. I'm wondering the best way to proceed in this section… do I use heading 2 style for the asides in the introduction or leave as is?
A: You always follow the rule of hierarchy. This rule is based on creating accessible navigation and less on the visual order of the headings. Nest headings without skipping. For example, if you have a book with two levels of headings, use Heading 1 and Heading 2, not Heading 1 and Heading 3, no matter how small or insignificant the second level of heading might appear. It’s very important to not skip heading levels as the document will not validate as an accessible ebook. In this case, the asides in the first section are Heading 2. If you skip a heading the reader will become confused and lost as it reads as if there is a heading missing from the navigation.
This is listed in the general rules for headings on the Styles & Headings page in the wiki.
Q: In Butter Honey Pig Bread, there are a number of emails and letters utilized as part of the narrative. In the ebook, the letters are formatted with italics, however the emails do not have any distinct formatting.What is the best approach to reformatting these sections. Should I apply quote style or leave without formatting?
A: You can apply quote format to these sections.
Q: Question regarding the placement of the book summary section. I've included this section for the information on the front cover flap of "Thanks for the Business" but I am unsure of where this should be placed in the order or the book. Prior to the title page section, or after?
A: We do not keep any cover information. So anything from the cover can be removed.
Q: In "Thanks for the Business" there is a point where the author provides a series of quotes from the subject of the book to illustrate a particular point. The original book formats the quotes in a list with bullet points. Should I also format this as a list to keep it consistent with the e-book? Or would it be more appropriate to use the quote style? The quotes can be found on page 301-302 of the e-book.
A: Good question! In this case you can keep it as a list.
Q: In the book the Haunting of Room 909, the author frequently capitalizes whole words in dialogue to indicate the speaker is yelling or emphasizing something. I understand that leaving the words capitalized will mean that one letter is read at a time. Should I just make these words lower-case, or use emphasis style, or is there another way I can make them stand out?
A: Just remove the all-capital letters, we do not need to add anything to the text.
Q: In the book One Good Reason, there are two authors who take turns telling their stories. There is an image at the beginning of each chapter indicating which author is speaking: a guitar if it's Sean and a heart if it's Andrea. Since they're functional and not just decorative, should I keep the images and add alt-text? Or should I replace the image with [Sean] or [Andrea]?
A: Great Question! In this case, since they bring meaning to the text you should keep them and add simple Alt-Text. For example "An acoustic guitar representing Sean."
Q: Question regarding formatting quotes. In the Hanging of Angelique there are a number of block quotes taken from newspapers and journals. In the etext some of the quotes have the date formatted to be a part of the block quote, whereas others appear to have the date formatted in a way that appears it is intended to be outside of the block quote. Just to clarify, should I apply the quote style to all of the dates so they are consistent? Or apply the quote style only to the dates that appear to be a part of the block quote?
A: Great question. In this case, it is best to be consistent.
Q: Question regarding The Hanging of Angelique. THe text refers to Fala de Guine, a creole language that is a fusion of Portuguese and African languages. One paragraph of the text utilizes some specific terms from that language to describe Afro-Portuguese culture such as "mangana", "ye ye" and "zarambeque". I'm unsure of the proper language formatting for these terms… should I leave without language formatting or maybe utilize Portuguese?
A: So it sounds like these are being used as proper nouns, in that case they would not have language applied to them. See the language section for more information on when and when not to used languages.
A note about less common languages: If Word does not have a language in its options for applying languages then we can not apply it. Never apply a similar language as that would be incorrect.
It is good to always check the wiki Language page, and check with me about languages as they can be very tricky sometimes (for example we don't have span tags for most Indigenous languages at this time, but Inuktitut has a set of unicode for its symbolics-this is highlighted further in the language page.
We also have to be super careful in using language tags because they can cause an accessibility barrier if it is just a small phrase or single word. This can go against our intuition as sighted readers, but remember the screenreader will read that single word or short phrase in a completely different voice and then go back to the main voice when it is done. This is incredibly jarring and it not helpful at all. We should only be applying them to longer phrases or blocks of text.
If you find there are a lot of these words, or longer phrases let me know and we can put in a Producer's Note similar to the one we do for Indigenous languages.
Never hesitate to ask!
Q: Quick question about Faith that Works. There are some photos at the end that I'm wondering whether I should keep and add alt-text to or just delete. They are at the very end under the section "Ten Point Plan for Gospel Advancement" which isn't part of the main book. To me, it looks more like the advertising material publishers sometimes put at the back of books.
A: Good question! You can remove the images but keep the text and apply nested lists. This is a list of resources, so you can also create a heading 'Resources'
Q: This is a question about headings and navigation. I'm working on The Good Turn. The book is divided into parts with chapters within the parts, which is all very straightforward. But there are two places where I'm not sure what to do. The first is that there are sections called "Anna" that present a different character's point of view. They are also sometimes in a different timeline from the main narrative. I think they should be H1 level, like the Part headings but I'm not sure since they are more like chapters. I'm wondering whether I should actually put them as H2, even though one of them occurs before Part One begins. I'm not sure which is better for navigation. The other place I'm not sure about is the dates that are placed BEFORE the chapter or part headings. Usually the date/location comes after like on Page 9 and 83 but in some places like page 157 and page 211, a new date is placed between chapters. Is it okay to move the date just after the chapter heading instead of leaving it before? It seems like navigation would be improved if I did but I know we generally try to leave the text alone as much as possible so I wanted to check what you thought was best.
A: Great Question! You should never edit a book, but if you are unsure ask! We want to recreate the book as close to the original as possible. Remember, this is copyrighted material, so we can't actually edit anything or move things into a new order, we just have to do our best to make it as assessable as possible with reformatting.
I looked at this title, and you are so right, these headings confusing. A good rule of thumb is to remember we are working with a Hierarchical structure for headings. This means H1 is always followed by H2, which is always followed by H3, and so on. Here is a link to the wiki that explains this a bit more.
A good way to help figure this out is look at the original PDF (you should always be looking at the original ebook as you publish your books to make sure you are following the right formatting as needed)
For example, the first time you see
THE GOOD TURN Dublin, Ireland Tuesday 1 September 2015 ANNA
at the beginning of the etext, this is actually three pages. One is an additional title page, which you can delete in this instance, and the others are the section headings that are divided by pages. Sometimes publishers use blank pages for breaks.
So the first page has the heading
Dublin, Ireland Tuesday 1 September 2015
You want to mark this as one full heading as follows
Dublin, Ireland: Tuesday 1 September 2015 (heading one because it is the first section after the Title page and front matter, it is not a subsection so it gets heading one)
The next page has 'Anne' in smaller font and underlined. That can be set to Heading Two as it is a subsection of the previous heading followed by text.
Then you have this own page in the PDF
PART ONE Galway, Ireland Saturday 31 October 2015
This can be split into two headings levels following our rule for navigational hierarchy
Part One (H1)
Galway, Ireland: Saturday 31 October 2015 (H2)
All the chapters under this last H2 heading will be H3 (chapter 1-10)
Another trick to help you is to note the font and layout style in the original PDF.
All the Heading Ones and twos are on their own page, and the Heading threes are on a separate page (usually before the body text) a smaller font and underlined. These are visual clues on how to help you structure the headings. The first section is an exception because we have to follow the rule of hierarchy. We also know all Parts get top headings, so that will move down all following Location: Date headings to H2 and all Chapter and Anna headings to H3 as per the rule of hierarchy.
Then you go into the next part and start again.
It will look as follows:
and so one until you get to the Epilogue and other back matter which are all H1.
Q: Hello, I'm working on Powwow Summer. The .doc file has been converted from a PDF file. I can't figure out how to get rid of the grey page colour in the .doc file. I've attached a screenshot to show you what it looks like.
It's not grey shading of the text, it's the page itself. It doesn't seem to be a graphic that I can delete, like it usually is. I tried making the paper letter sized (it was smaller with non existent margins on the left to start with so that's why I adjusted the paper size, because I wanted to make sure it was all left justified). When I did that, the grey background only took up the original paper size so now it has white margins on the right and bottom. But I still can't get rid of the remaining grey. When I google the problem, I just find instructions for removing grey background from text, not from the page itself. I also tried copying and pasting the text into a new document but the grey page background came with it. And I have cleared formatting several times. Any suggestions on how to get the page background all white?
A: This is an example where Word can be very tricky. So it is an image that exists on a separate pane, and is located in the header. There are also two levels of grey squares you will need to delete.
In order to delete
NOTE: When you are resizing the page layout please make sure you are doing it with direct formatting. First, select the entire document, then go the Layout tab in the Ribbon Menu and select 8x10 (do not select the borderless option.) We need to be careful and consistent if we are resizing a document to avoid any error.
Q: Follow up question regarding the song title tables in Four Boys and a Guitar: When I'm making a separate table for each song, I have been putting the song title in the spot labeled "Title" under Table Properties - Alt Text. However, when you look at the tables on the page, there is no visible indication of the song title for each table. I'm wondering if it would improve usability for sighted users to add a level H2 header in front of each table with the song title for that table?
A: Yes, adding the heading and the title in the alt-text priorities works.
Q: I have come to the appendixes at the end of this book and there is a very long and complex table in Appendix D (starts on page 195 of the PDF, titled Mills Brothers Discography–by song title) that I could use some direction on. It's going to take a lot of time and I just want to make sure I'm tackling it the best way before I start. The issue I'm having is the subheadings for each song title. Here's a screenshot of one way I thought of to deal with them. But I'm also wondering if it would be better to create a separate table for each song. What do you think?
A: In this case you should create separate tables for each song title.
Set the heading of the section as 'Mills Brothers Discography–By Song Title
Set each table tile as simply the song title.
Q: In Svaha, there are some Mandarin phrases that are spelled out phonetically with the English alphabet. I've been trying to mark them as Strong and to set the language as Chinese but Word won't let me. (I click "okay" after choosing Chinese as the language and the pop up box closes but then the language is still marked as English). Since they're spelled out phonetically, I'm wondering if they even need to be marked? And if they do, do you have any suggestions as to why Word won't let me?
An example of the type of phrase I'm talking about is: "Wo hen hsiang chien t'a."
Edited to add: Sure, I uploaded it to Cyberduck. I just want to add that I later came across a lot of similarly spelled out Japanese phrases and was also unable to mark them as Japanese.
A: It seems to be an issue with Word since the words are written with english characters. Apply bold style to them, and add a Producer's Note about the Chinese and Japanese phrases not having proper markup, so screen reader's will not pronounce them correctly.
Q: I am working on the plates for my book, The Statler Brothers. With our new workflow, do we need to modify the Caption style, or can we leave it as is?
A: Great question! You can leave it as is. The new conversion process is a lot smoother than the old one, so we can do less modifications to the doc file.
Q: I have a question about French dialogue for the book Société des grands fonds. For French dialogue, they often forego quotation marks and instead use em dashes at the beginning of each line of dialogue, which make it look more like a list. Here's an example from chapter 10 of this book:
— Un hot dog patate, ça fait longtemps que j’ai pas mangé ça…
— Pourquoi tu penses à ça ?
— Ben, t’es venu ben loin pour manger un hot dog.
Am I okay to leave it as is?
A: Yes. We only reformat, and this would be an edit. We aim to keep the reformatted book as close to the original as possible.
Q: I am starting Elric: Stormbringer! and this will be the first book I edit with the new workflow of not using the NNELS template add-on. I have cleared the formatting twice. My question is about the normal style. In my software, it is currently set as Times New Roman, size 11. Previously, all our documents were Arial, size 14, which seems more accessible to me for people with low vision. Assuming we aren't switching to Times New Roman 11, going forward, will I need to modify the normal style to be Arial 14 for each doc? I'm also wondering, is this default style something I can change in my Word program so that normal is always Arial 14 going forward?
A: Normal style as presented in your Word is fine. We no longer have to custom styles the way we used to. This will not be a problem with our new workflow for EPUB3. EPUB3's have the ability to change the font style and size within the reader, and 'easy to read fonts' can be different for different people. Though sans serif is generally better for low vision people.
Q: This question is about how we treat Indigenous languages. I have a book where there are just a few single words in an Indigenous language. They aren't phrases so I haven't marked them as per the new procedure. My question is, do I still include a Prod Note at the beginning identifying the language and explaining how they won't be pronounced correctly?
A: Yes. For Indigenous languages always include the producers note, and do your best to identify the language as precisely as you can.
Q: Another question today but this one is regarding the new instructions for sidebars and textboxes. Should I mark the end of the textbox content with three asterisks to indicate that the reader is back in the regular content of the book?
A: Great question! Just move the secondary content to the end of the section.
Q: Edit: I've tried with Adobe Digital Editions and Calibre. I just tried with Thorium, but I get an Import Failed message when I try to open the book…
The Notes that are not linked for me are:
Chapter 7, note 3, 18, 19
Chapter 10, note 6
Q: How should I handle endnotes that are not properly linked in the original text (Quarantine, What is Old is New by Ian Arthur Cameron)?
Notes 18 and 19 don't link to anything.
A: What ereader are you using? It could be the reading software. When I opened up the ebook in iBooks, all the notes work. I also opened it in Thorium and it worked. If you don't have Thorium you can download it here.
Q: I have a follow up question about the poetry book, How to Dress a Fish. In your answer below regarding the sections of text that are censored with a black box, you said, "Keep the black boxes and add the alt-text "thick black line that blocks out word" ". I'm just looking for some clarification around this.
I expected that the black boxes would be images of black boxes since you said to add alt-text for them. I've actually found that all the black boxes I've encountered so far (I'm about 30% through) are regular text in the docx file - so, I can see the word that was originally blacked out in the text and there are no images of black boxes to add alt-text to.
So, to format it to be like the original, I was deleting the word meant to be blacked out and then inserting the Unicode that you gave me for another poetry book, U+25AC. But I just realized that I can instead highlight the word that needs to be blacked out and use the highlight tool to make it black. Then it looks just like the original. Is it okay to proceed that way? There are also some words that are highlighted grey but still legible and I thought I could apply this technique to these as well. Does highlighting words work when you do the XML markup? If this approach won't work, should I stick with the Unicode symbol of a black bar?
A: Sorry for the confusion. Highlighting is not accessible, most direct formatting is not which is why we rely so heavy on styles. Your original approach to deleting and inserting the black bar is the best way to go. Keep it as close to the original as possible. Great work!
Q: I have a formatting question from Zagreb One Four. Could you look at the attached page where there are transcripts of the conversations between the pilots and the air traffic control? I'm not sure about how to format these. They appear as columns but they are time-stamped two way conversations so I'm not sure if columns would be the most accessible way to present the text? I see on the wiki that columns are rarely used and usually better as a table or list. I tried formatting each line of dialogue as a list but I wasn't sure if that was right.
A: Great question! In this case columns are definitely not a good choice, so good call on that one. I would approach this the same way you approach dialogue in a play.
09.5522" Zagred: Adria 548, level check?
JP548: Out of 190 (climbing from Flight Level 190).
09.5525" Zagreb: Thank you …
Time to call 550:
0.55 50" Zagred: Adria 550, recleared 360, call passing 220.
Q: Hi, I have a new question about Magnetic Equator. I'm not sure what to make of the first stanza of the poem "alterity". Whether I view the epub file in Calibre or Adobe Reader, the lines run over top of each other. But they do so differently in the two readers so I don't think it's intentional. And then when I compare the words to my docx file, the lines are in a different order. I noticed something similar on the first page of the poem "mantra falls" but in that case the words running over top of each other only happened in Reader and not in Calibre and the lines weren't out of order so I just switched to viewing the text in Calibre.
I've also noticed that for this file, I can't enlarge the print to see if that fixes the problem. So, my question is, how do I decide what order the lines are supposed to be in for this stanza if I can't view a readable original version? Can I just trust that the docx file has it right?
Edited to add: I was having very similar issues with the next book of poetry I took, "Heft", so I tried one more thing: I tried opening the epub on a different computer than the one I usually use because it has a much bigger monitor. Lines were still overlapping in Adobe Reader but in Calibre, I can finally see the pages without any overlapping. So I think I'm good now.
A: I am glad you sorted it out. There is nothing wrong with the file, it is just an issue with the reader. If it happens again you might want to try a different reader such as Thorium that is free to all operating systems. I used it on my Windows PC laptop and the issue of overlapping lines did not occur.
Q: There is a thank you for buying this e-book published by Hachette Digital blurb at the end of The Shack Revisited. Should I set it at header 1 or should I do something else with it?
A: You can simply remove this entire section.
Q: Another question about "What the Bible is All About". This is about the glossary. It gives a pronunciation guide for many of the terms (eg. "eunuch (YOO-nuhk)" ) which includes uppercase letters to show which syllable receives the emphasis. Is it okay to leave all the uppercase letters alone and add a Prod Note explaining that screen readers may not pronounce the pronunciation guide portions correctly?
A: Yes, we can just leave as is written, since that’s the way to indicate pronunciation. An optional producer’s note at the beginning of the section is a good idea!
Q: In the book "What the Bible is All About", there is a sort of mnemonic that I'm unsure how to format. It's in chapter 45 on page 508 when I view it in Adobe Digital Editions. It displays as follows:
So, it looks like a list but isn't really a list. And it has the first letter of each word bolded to show that they spell "Faith". For now, I have left it with each word on a separate line but not as a list and I applied Strong style to the first letter of each word to mimic how it appears in the book. Do you think there's a better way to handle it?
A: The way you handled this is correct. You don't have to format this as a list, and keep the first letter in strong style. Good work!
Q: Unsure if the tables were formatted correctly in Appendix A at the end of the book 101 ways to meeting angels by Karen Paolino.
From the Tables section of the wiki: "A caption or description should always be included to give context to a table"
I am interpreting the 'or' in 'caption or description' to mean to include one of the two (either caption or description). But given our past conversation on inclusion of alt text, perhaps i should be including both? Caption and Description? But when I followed the wiki's instructions to add a description, it was greyed out and I was unable to edit it, so only captions are present for the tables.
A: I will fix the wording in the wiki, but every table should have Alt-Text. When it comes to not being able to access the Alt-Text in the table priorities, it looks like this is an issue with they way the document was saved. Just resave and replace the document using the 'Save As' option and double check to ensure it is saving as a .docx file. It will prompt you to replace the file, just accept and replace the file. It should now work!
I creates a short video to illustrate what I mean: https://screencast-o-matic.com/watch/cYn6q2wTtP
Word is a finicky beast!
Q: I'm just about finished this book but am having difficulty with one section: the Photo Credits at the end. They provide credit for some of the photos but I'm having a hard time telling which credit goes with which photos. They appear to be referring to roman numeral page numbers within the photo inserts but when I view the epub file in Calibre or in Adobe Digital Editions, I don't see the page numbers in the photo section so I have no idea which photos are on which page. So I can't tell which credit goes with which photo. I'm also not sure how to format this section. It seems a bit like an index where it's pointing the reader to specific pages so I was going to treat it like an index and format it as a list with a Prod Note about the page numbers being included but not valid. And then I was going to copy each photo credit and add it to the caption for the photo it belongs to (but then ran into the problem of not knowing which credit belongs to which photo).
A: First off–wow this is terribly formatted. Now to your questions:
I opened the book up in Calibre, and looked at the photo credit section. The text at the top of the section states that all photos are copyright Stevie Cameron expect where otherwise noted. Then the hyperlinked list goes directly to the images that are NOT credited to Stevie Cameron, and the clue to which image that is in in the hyperlink text. For instance, the first on is the top image on the page ( ii (top) Toronto Star/GetStock.) I am still not sure what the roman numerals are, but they are confusing. Following that logic you can identify each image as it hyperlinks to the respective pages. Since we don't use page numbers the best way to deal with this section is just take each copyright statement and add it into the end of the captions for each image (or as a caption itself if the image has no caption.) Then erase the hyperlinked list, but retain the section with the opening sentences and add an inline producers note explaining what you changed (i.e. in the original book the additional copyright information was presented as a hyperlinked list. Due to the conversion process we have reformatted that information to be included in the captions of the images respectively…or something along those lines.) Let me know if you have more questions. I am also gonna copy this to the Q&A section of the wiki.
As for locating page numbers in Calibre, there is a text bar in the top left corner of the E-Book viewer that shows the page numbers (e.g. 486.0/1435 is page 486 out of 1435)
Q: In Murach's Python Programming, there are many pages that are captioned and referred to elsewhere as "Figures". (For example, page 25 in the PDF file is labeled as "Figure 1-1" and page 27 is "Figure 1-2". I looked ahead a few chapters and it actually looks like almost every other page is a "Figure"). These Figures contain a mixture of tables, images and text. I'm wondering what the best way is to handle these. Would it make sense to treat them as textboxes so they are marked off from the regular text and move the figure caption to the top of the page and make it a heading within the textbox? My concern is that if I treat them as an image with a caption - which seems to be the current format - the user won't be able to navigate to them when they're referenced in the main text. What's your advice?
A: You do not have to treat them as a textbox, you can just move the header up to the beginning and assign it the correct hierarchy (i.e. make it lower that the headers above it.) When it comes to the images themselves, they seem to have been converted in different ways, and should be treated case-by-case. For example, in Figure 1-1 converted all as text. The four general purposes should be a list (you can treat the header of this list as normal text. My reasoning here is that not all the headings in these figures work as headings for accessibility–for instance the table would become a caption. Since this is the case we should try and be consistent and avoid confusion by treating these particular headings as either captions or normal text depending on the context. This can help make the document more uniform in conversion. Does that make sense?) For the next part, which is the table, the header would be the caption of the table, and then for the next section the header can be treated as normal text. In Figure 1-2, you can cut the image up into three images with the headers as captions. Remember, if you do have an image that is text (in these cases HTML examples) you can transcribe them into inline producers notes. This is a complicated book, so if you have any other questions do not hesitate to ask.
Q: In the book A Girl Named Lovely, there is the following sentence: "Of that, C$128 million was matched by the government, adding up to C$282 million." I know text-to-speech software can handle the $ just fine but when I run it through Word's built in TTS, it doesn't interpret it as "Canadian Dollars" as intended. Is it okay if I change the sentence to "Of that, 128 million Canadian Dollars was matched…"?
A: In this case leave it as it is, most advanced screen readers will be able to read it.
Q: I'm working on the book The Gospel in Every Book of the Old Testament. It has a mistake in its end notes. There is one note listed at the back of the book that has no corresponding superscript number in the text. If I leave the note out of the text to reflect the book, the reader will have no way to see the citation since we don't retain the book's version of the list of endnotes. I'm fairly certain I know where the superscript number is supposed to go - is it okay to add it in? Or should I let the mistake stand since that's how the published book is?
A: In this case, you should enter the superscript number in the section if you are confident you know where it goes. This is clearly a typo, and the type of typo that would make accessibility tricky. Good eye.
Q: There is also a mistake in the numbering of the chapters: no chapter 25 and two chapter 28s. Should I fix that to help with navigation or leave it as is?
A: You are correct, in this case we would want to fix this since it would hinder navigation.
Q: I'm working on Pelleteur de Nuages and there is some kind of weird code in the word doc that's making it very difficult to work with. Here's a screenshot to help explain:
There's a curly bracket at the beginning that if I try to delete it, deletes the entire text. It's somehow connected to everything that follows. If I click it, the entire text is highlighted. I think it's the source of my problems but I don't know how to get rid of it.
The whole file is very slow and tends to crash. I also can't figure out how to get the text to be black on white instead of highlighted grey. I've gone ahead and started editing it, but it's very slow going and I thought you might know how to get rid of the hidden code that's slowing things down?
A: All the links are still active within the document. I downloaded the document to see if I could find the issue. I followed the steps of starting a document (Delete all styles, upload NNELS template.) The next steps should always be
Select All and
Clear all Formatting followed by
Select All and
Remove All Links. There is a section on the wiki that shows you how to do this in Windows and Mac: Links. Start from the original converted file, and go through all the above steps. When I did this on my computer everything worked out, and the file was not slow at all. We all know Word can be wonky, so it is always good to start from the beginning in these cases. After you do this, and you still have an issue, let me know.
Q: Just checking whether the inline citation procedure for internal links applies to an index? The book I'm working on (City of Omens) has an extensive index with links instead of page numbers. For example, the entry for a person named Alaniz, Victor has 8 internal links after his name that each just say "here" instead of page numbers. Should I go through each link and replace it with the name of the chapter where the link takes me to? (this book is not subdivided any further than chapters, there are no section headings so I'm just not sure how useful this would be to the reader since the chapters are fairly long).
A: Since DAISY does not support such links, we will have to treat them like other inline citations and replace them with the Chapter Headings. Another idea is to do
See 'Insert Phrase' in Chapter #, I am not sure if this would work for each, but it may be a workaround for the limitations of the reader.
Which is then referenced at the end of Chapter 11 with relevant bible quotes and some author commentary:
How should I proceed?
A: The first set of quotes are actually titles of Subsections. If you click on them they take you to the TOC of the EPUB, and vice versa. The Number and Quotes are listed as Subsection in the TOC in the EPUB. So you will need to style they as Sub Headings (e.g. 1:“God is not a whole lot different from me.” [Heading 3 Style-which seems to be the next heading down if I am going by the EPUBS TOC.])
As for the Second Set, this is a bit trickier since they are not in the EPUB TOC, they are not Hyperlinked, but they have the same styling as the other numbered quotes. Since the publisher has used the same font style as the other numbered quotes, you should stick to consistency and style them also as subheadings.
Q: This book has an "Author's note" section listed 3 times throughout which asks readers to rate and review the book on Amazon.com or "wherever you purchased it from." The note is the same in all instances. Should I leave all 3 instances of this text in the book? Or remove some of them?
A: You can simply remove these sections.
Q: The book I'm working on has the following section near the beginning:
Ebook Instructions In this ebook edition, please use your device's note-taking function to record your thoughts wherever you see the bracketed instructions [Your notes] or [Your response]. Use your device's highlighting function to record your response whenever you are asked to checkmark, circle, underline, or otherwise indicate your answer(s).
I'm unsure how to handle this since the end user won't be able to record their notes or responses in our version. Should I leave it in or delete it?
A: You can remove this section.
Q: The book I'm working on isn't EPUB or PDF - it's .azw3 (Kindle format, I believe). I have an e-book viewer on my laptop so I used that to open it but now I don't know how to extract images. I tried the EPUB method of changing the file extension to .zip but that didn't work. In my e-book viewer, there's an option to print the book as a PDF. So I can convert it to PDF but I'm wondering whether this will preserve the image quality? Do you think converting it to PDF and then extracting the images from there is my best option for dealing with images in the book?
A: Great Question. To answer this I created a page on the wiki on how to extract images from Kindle (.azw3) files.
Q: My current book has a lot of instances of a symbol with "L SEP" in a dotted lined box. So far, they all look like they could be replaced with a space. Is there a known way to use Find and Replace to easily replace these?
A: So that box means there was an issue with the font when it was converted. First, make sure what the box is representing. In the case of your file it is representing a blank space. As far as I have been able to research, this is the main thing it tends represent, but it is best to be safe and just double check. The quickest way to do this is using your Find & Replace window.
It will show you every location it is in the file, then you can just scan through and ensure that it is only representing a blank space. If this is the case then you can use the Find & Replace window to replace them all. To do this simply
and you are done! Here is a link to a video that shows you what I did: https://screencast-o-matic.com/watch/cqjODGtbvf
I will also update the Find & Replace section of the wiki to show these instructions.
Q: Further to the question below, the book I'm working on has hundreds of instances where a space between two words was missing. It seemed like some kind of conversion glitch rather than a typo or mis-spelling. Is it okay to re-insert the spaces so that TTS software can read it better?
A: Good eye. You are correct in your assumption. So these are not spelling mistakes, but an error that can occur in conversion with some types of books. You can get this A LOT with PDF's, or books that used hard hyphenation in the ebook. In these cases you will want to go through and re insert those lost spaces. Unfortunately, currently we do not have a way to do this other than manually. If you figure out a faster way to do it let us all know. Good luck and thanks for taking this on!
Q: I feel this was addressed somewhere else, but I cannot find where. If we come across a spelling error made in the original work, do we leave them as is?
A: You leave any spelling errors as is. Our jobs are to reformat the books to be DAISY compatible, so we avoid edits of the content as much as possible. Let me know if you need more clarification on this.
Q: How should I handle mentions of World War II? Do I leave the "II" as is, change it to 2, or something else?
A: You can leave it as is. Most TTS software is able to read it properly.
Q: I am working on a book that uses internet language. For instance there are hastags (#) and there are @ symbols to indicate atSarah, i.e. @Sarah. How should we format these?
A: For hashtag and @ text strings, or any text that is strung together it is important to put them in Camel Case. In this way, most screen readers will read it properly and it’s also easier for sighted readers to read the text when it’s like that. For example: #accessiblereadingforthewin can be edited to #AccessibleReadingForTheWin
As for the hashtag symbol itself, nothing special needs to be done—you can simply use the # (number sign) key on your keyboard. Any symbols that exist on your keyboard or in MS Word itself can be inserted as usual.
Q: My book contains several references and citations that have been numerically referenced and hyperlinked to a list of endnotes at the end of the book. After removing the hyperlinks, how should I deal with these numerical endnotes throughout the text?
Inline text: All systems are perfectly organized to achieve the results they get, and the Canadian healthcare system is no different.1
In Endnote: 1 This idea has been attributable to various authors including David Hanna, Paul Plsek, and even Albert Einstein. Within the healthcare setting the idea has been attributed to Dr. Paul Batalden.
A: That is a great question. You will have to reinsert all the endnotes. We have to do this for all types of notes, be it footnotes or endnotes. We have a really great section on Footnotes/Endnotes that also as some great tutorials that will help you out. Let us know if you need more clarification.
Q: When a book has a title and subtitle, should the subtitle be the same heading 1 as the title? Or should it be heading 2 or normal text? Thank you!
A: You can head the title page section with the words "Title Page" and give this text the Heading 1 style. The text that follows (Title, Author, Publisher, etc., should be "Normal".
Q: Just a quick clarification on the remove all page breaks request…does this mean that every page should just continue on to the next? Even between different chapters?
A: Yes, all page breaks should be removed, unless the user has requested that pagination be retained. To remove all page breaks, you can do a Find and Replace:
^m stands for manual page break.
Q: I am working on The Boat People, and in the Discussion Questions section, the ePub navigates to the section of the book it is referring to in the question (i.e. saying "On this page…"). I wasn't sure how to incorporate this navigation in the etext version, so I added this producer's note and added the chapter names beside where the "this page" reference was:
Start Producer’s Note
Page numbers have not been retained in this digital version of The Boat People. In the original digital book, some of the questions refer to “this page”, linking the reader to the page. We have added chapter references in brackets for easier navigation, since page numbers have not been retained in this digital copy.
End Producer’s Note
Example from the text with chapter names added:
6. On this page (Family Business), Grace’s mother, Kumi, describes how her parents “kept quiet” about what the family endured during the internment of Japanese Canadians, because they “thought they were protecting us.” Later, on this page (Don’t Rock the Boat), Grace recalls her grandmother telling her to “Focus on tomorrow.
Was this the correct way to approach this problem? What could I have done differently?
A: Interesting question. I think that's a good approach, although maybe not ideal as, like you say, it doesn't link to the exact location in the book (refers people to the general Chapter as opposed to the specific page).
Q: Another TTS question: will things like "I had a 16' dinghy" and "there were 5.5" medium guns" be said as feet and inches?
A: It would depend on the text-to-speech software being used. VoiceOver (Mac's built-in TTS) recognizes these as measurements and reads them as such, i.e. "five feet five inches" and "16 foot dinghy". If you're using Mac and are curious how text is read, you can enable TTS (same if you're using Windows, which uses Narrator).
Q: I'm almost positive that I know the answer to this one (TTS is smart!) but just wanted to double check: Should ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, etc.) be written out all in normal text? Or should the abbreviated letters be superscript, as Word prompts them to be when typed out?
A: How things are read aloud depends on the TTS software being used, but yes - generally TTS is smart :) I tested it on my Mac (which uses VoiceOver) and it reads "1st" and 1st with the
st as superscript the same way – as "first". I've yet to come across a case where numbers are misread.
Q: The opening sections of Theomatics are all signed off by the author of that section including their a sign off, full name, and either the date or an address. How should I format this?
A: This can be formatted as normal paragraph text.
Q What should I do with the following section:
A: We can remove this section.
Q: What do we do if we notice an obvious formatting error in the ePub version (and Word version) of the book? In Sex Made Easy, there are numbered subheadings and the author has written #70 twice and has skipped #72. Is this something I should correct?
A: The DTB should reflect the original text, errors and all (unfortunately we're not editing for writing). We can tell the reader about this issue in the Producer's Note section of the book.
Q: How does DAISY read ellipses? I have been editing ellipses with spaces between or more than three points (ex: . . . . ) to three points with a space at the end (ex: … ) but I’m not sure if this matters or if it’s correct; it was more just based on assumption and/or personal preference. Thoughts?
A: How the TTS reads depends on 2 main things: a) the software and b) user's customized settings. As for editing, if it's unclear how to transcribe something based on the original text, we should look up the proper way to do it; for example, we can refer to a style guide, such as Chicago or APA. Here's what Chicago has to say about ellipsis: Style Guide: Punctuation